Yard and Garden: August 3, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for August 3, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am this was the final episode for 2018. It can be found again next spring on kutt995.com for online listening. If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: go.unl.edu/yardandgarden18 and be entered to win a free tree diagnostic book.

Guest Hosts: Kevin Christiansen, Horticulture Instructor at SCC Beatrice & Evan Alderman, Turfgrass Management and Horticulture Instructor at SCC Beatrice

1. The first caller of the day has a windbreak that has elms growing in it. How can he kill the elms and not harm the windbreak trees?

A. In this situation you need to use a herbicide that will kill the elms but will not be translocated through the roots into the surrounding windbreak trees. Tordon should NOT be used in this location. A good option would be either glyphosate, Roundup, or a 2,4-D product. Use these 2 products as a stump treatment on the tree just after cutting the tree off.

2. A caller has cucumbers that are blooming but are not producing any fruit yet. Why are the cucumber not producing? This caller also wondered how to control puncturevine?

A. The cucumbers could be due to no female flowers, if all the flowers are male, they will not produce any fruits. Sometimes our plants start with just male flowers and the females will come in later. It could also be due to low pollinators around the plants. If not many bees or beetles or other insects are found around the plants, they cannot be pollinated and may need to be hand pollinated. Hand pollination can be done by running a cotton swab through all of the blooms, this would move pollen from male flowers to female flowers. Puncturevine can be controlled with a 2,4-D product in the fall. Apply the 2,4-D in mid-September and in mid-October.

3. When should you transplant surprise lilies?

A. Surprise lillies can be transplanted or divided just after the flower dies back in the fall.

4. This caller has foxtail in the vegetable garden. Can anything be sprayed in the garden to control the foxtail?

A. There is nothing that can be sprayed over a garden to control foxtail and not harm the garden plants. The best option would be to use preen in the spring and summer to stop the germination of annual weeds such as foxtail. Be sure to use the preen that is labeled for use in a vegetable garden and wait until after all seeds planted have germinated. Mulch would help suppress the weeds in the garden as well. Grass clippings, straw, or other organic mulches will help keep the weeds down to help your vegetable plants grow better.

5. A caller was looking for assistance choosing fruit trees for his acreage. He also has rust on his fruit trees and wants to know how to manage it.

A. There is a great NebGuide on Fruit Tree Cultivars for Nebraska. For rust, this is not the correct time to treat for it. You can spray your trees in the spring with a liquid copper fungicide. For more on care and pest control of your fruit trees, visit: https://food.unl.edu/local-food-production

6. This caller has a windbreak of Red Cedars that are losing limbs. The trees are 100 years old and 30 feet tall. What is wrong with them?

A. This could be due to old age. It may be a good idea to start a new row of trees on the inside of the old row.

7. A caller has nutsedge in his lawn. What can he spray it with and can he still spray it?

A. Sedgehammer is the best control for nutsedge. It can still be sprayed now, however more control will be achieved if applied in the beginning of June, prior to the first day of summer. If sprayed before June 21st, nutlet production will be reduced, thereby reducing the population for the following year.

2014-10-06 15.27.18
Tree planting in the fall

8. This caller wants to know when the best time is to transplant an oak tree?

A. Fall or Spring are both good times to transplant a tree.

9. How do you control cattails and water lilies in a pond?

A. Rodeo is the glyphosate product that is labeled for use in water and it can be used on both of these weeds.

10. How can you control crabgrass and nutsedge in a lawn

A. Quinclorac can be used now for both of these weeds. Or use a pre-emergent herbicide in the spring and again in June for the crabgrass and sedgehammer for the nutsedge in June. Tenacity is another product that should work on both of these weeds.

11. A caller wants to know why we should worry about getting rid of cattails and water lilies in a pond?

A. Weeds in a pond can strangle the waterways or destroy habitat for fish. Some plant life along the edge of the pond can be beneficial, but too much can be a detriment.

12. This caller has lilies with caterpillars in the stem. What are those and how can they be destroyed?

A. This is likely a cutworm. Sevin or eight or Bt applied at the base of the plant can help kill these pests before they damage your plants.

13. When is the proper time to apply a winter fertilizer on a lawn?

A. Fall fertilizer can be applied in late August to mid September and the winter fertilizer can be applied in the middle to late October. It is no longer recommended to apply the winter fertilizer in November as previously recommended.

14. A walk-in listener has a weed they need identified and they need to know how to control it?

A. This is a weed called nimblewill. It is a warm-season grassy weed. It can be treated either with Roundup or Tenacity. If you use Roundup and reseed, apply the roundup now, while the nimblewill is still green and then overseed in a couple of weeks through the end of September.

15. This caller has spaghetti squash that was looking great and then one day it just died. What caused it to die and how can the other plants be protected?

A. This is likely due to squash vine borer. You can use sevin or eight to protect your plants from the squash vine borer. Be sure to apply it at the base of the plant where the plant comes out of the ground. These chemicals will need to be reapplied every 10-14 days throughout the growing season to protect the plants. Otherwise, you can wrap the base of the plant in aluminum foil to prevent the borer from getting into the plant.

16. A caller has watermelons with yellowing leaves. This has happened to his plants 3 years in a row now, he does rotate the crops in the garden. This damage starts at the base of the plants and will eventually kill the whole vine. He has mulch on the garden and waters slowly with a hose for 2 hours at a time. What is causing this problem? Also, when do you transplant iris?

A. This looks to be alternaria leaf spot. He is doing many things to prevent this disease already with mulch and his watering practices. It might be beneficial to try a liquid copper fungicide this year and next year as soon as the symptoms begin. Iris can be transplanted in the fall, September or October would be best.

17. A walk-in listener has a tree they want identified and they want to know why it keeps suckering and what they can do with the suckers?

A. This is a silver maple tree, they are prone to suckering. Suckers should be just cut off as they grow to reduce the amount of energy they take from the main tree. Do not treat the suckers with anything as that could injure or kill the main tree because the suckers are growing off the main tree roots.

18. This caller wants to know why their pepper plants are not growing well?

A.The peppers are planted too closely to a black walnut tree and will not grow well in that location. Black walnut trees produce juglone, which is basically a naturally produced weed killer. Certain plants are more sensitive to juglone, tomatoes and peppers are quite sensitive. The garden should be moved to at least 50 feet from the black walnut of the plants should be grown in a container or raised bed to avoid problems with the juglone.

19. The final caller of the year has hostas planted in a rock garden and they are not growing, they are still small like they were just planted there.

A. The rock garden may be too hot for the hostas and the rocks do not provide any nutrients back to the plants. It might be best to switch to a wood chip mulch to help reduce the heat and add some nutrients and organic matter to the soil.

2015-07-30 16.59.55
Bindweed

This caller also wanted to know what to do to kill the bindweed growing in her Iris beds?

A. Among other plants it is best to use the “glove of death” which is when you wear a chemical-resistant glove and then put a cloth glove over that. Then, dip a few fingers of the gloved hand into Glyphosate and rub those fingers along the stem and leaves of the bindweed to kill it. Basically, the idea is to keep it from flowering and producing more seed, hand pulling will help keep new seed from being deposited into the garden which can be viable for up to 60 years.

Yard and Garden: June 8, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 8, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Donnie Engelhardt, Assistant Water Resources Director, Little Blue NRD

1.The first caller of the show heard of a chemical that can be used to treat bindweed that started with a Q. What is that product?

A. Quinclorac is the active ingredient in a product called Drive. It is effective at controlling bindweed. However, this product is only labeled for use in lawns and cannot be legally or safely used in landscape beds or vegetable gardens.

He also is having a problem with his peach tree, it didn’t leaf out on the one side. The damage is also seen in some hydrangeas planted nearby. What is causing this?

A. This could be due to herbicide damage. If multiple types of plants in different families, genus’, and species are all affected the same it is often due to herbicide drift. There is nothing that can be done now to fix the problem, leave them to see if they grow out of the damage.

This first caller’s final question is that he has 3 pear trees that he ordered from a mail order catalog and one has not leafed out still. Is it dead?

A. This one that died could have dried out during transport. I would assume by now it would have leafed out if it was still alive. Scrape the bark off some of the smaller branches, if they are green there is still life in the tree, if it is brown, the tree is dead. Also, if the branches bend rather than break they are still alive.

2. A caller is looking to plant some new trees for shade, preferably something fast growing. When should they buy and plant these new trees?

A. Purchase your plant material when you are ready to plant. If the plant has to sit in the pot longer, it can lead to more problems with it drying out. The best times to plant a tree would be either in the spring or fall. At this point, it would be best to wait until fall, like September – later October. Planting now would be difficult to keep the tree watered through the heat/drought of the summer. Fast growth is not always the best option. Fast growing trees are not as strong as the slower growing trees and tend to break more in storms. Slower growing trees can actually put on quite a bit of growth in a few short years if they are kept with a 2-3 inch mulch ring and kept well watered. For good tree choices, view this guide from the Nebraska Forest Service.

3. This caller has Iris’ that have finished blooming, can they be cut back now? They also have some mums that died over the winter, why is that?

A. Once Iris’ and peonies’ have finished blooming for the year, the flower stalk can be cut off at the ground level. However, the leaves need to be left there to build energy in the roots for next spring. Some mums are just not as hardy as believed. Many gardeners struggle with maintaining their mum plants over the winter due to repeated freezing and thawing cycles through the growing season as well as wet, heavy soil or lack or snow cover. Longevity of the plants can be enhanced by planting them in a location that is more protected from north winds, discontinuing fertilization by the end of July to reduce new growth at the end of the season, adding several inches of mulch to the soil around the plants through the winter months, and cutting the plants back in the spring rather than in the fall.

4. Should the blooms of small tomato plants be pinched off?

A. Removing those blossoms until the plants get a little more growth on them will help the plants develop more roots and more shoot growth before pushing so much energy into producing the fruits. Wait until they get a little bigger before allowing those flowers to develop into fruits.

2016-04-02 10.11.52
Redbud Tree

5. A caller has a redbud tree that was planted last year and has not leafed out yet this year. It is, however, producing suckers at the base of the tree. Can those suckers be grown into a new tree? Also, how should trees be fertilized?

A. This could be a winterkill issue. Be sure to purchase redbuds from a local source. Often box stores purchase redbud trees from a Southern source and send them to all stores in the United States. If a tree was started further south than where it will be planted, it will not adjust well to the change in climate from the south to here. The sucker will grow into a new tree. Redbuds will do better with this than some. Often the suckers from a tree may not be as strong as the main tree and will not do as well, but with a redbud it should be fine. Fertilizer is rarely needed for trees in Southeast Nebraska. I would especially avoid fertilizer on a stressed tree, such as this redbud. Fertilizing a stressed tree will lead to further stress.

6. When is the best time to prune suckers from the maple trees and when is the best time to prune the lower branches from a spruce tree so the mower can fit below it?

A. Anytime is a good time to prune suckers from a tree. It is best to just continually prune them off as they form. If you leave them, they take energy from the tree. You can prune spruce trees most anytime of the year. However, if you are just looking to prune them so you can mow under the tree, if you leave them the tree will provide it’s own mulch and the grass will not grow under the high shade of the tree.

7. This caller wants to know what to do with peonies now and if ants are needed for the flowers to open on a peony?

A. At this point with a peony, cut off the stalks of the flowers and leave the leaves there. The leaves should be left to grow and produce energy for the plant so it can come out and flower early next spring. Leaves of peony plants can be removed in the fall when they turn brown and die back naturally. No, ants are not necessary for the buds of peony flowers to open. That is just a myth because ants are commonly found on the flowers, but they just like the sweet nectar.

8. A caller planted mums last year, they looked great through the season. This year only 2 came back. What is wrong with them?

A. Some mums are just not as hardy as believed and they often die due to winterkill. Many gardeners struggle with maintaining their mum plants over the winter due to repeated freezing and thawing cycles through the growing season as well as wet, heavy soil or lack or snow cover. Longevity of the plants can be enhanced by planting them in a location that is more protected from north winds, discontinuing fertilization by the end of July to reduce new growth at the end of the season, adding several inches of mulch to the soil around the plants through the winter months, and cutting the plants back in the spring rather than in the fall.

9. The last caller of the day has peppers planted in a mineral tub that are looking wilted. They are green and growing well but have droopy leaves. What is wrong with them?

A. Through discussion, it was noted that these peppers are planted in a container with soil from the backyard, not potting soil. It would be best to use a soil mix rather than soil from the ground. Potting soil has more nutrients available and is more porous for better plant growth. Adding fertilizer to his plants may help.

Yard and Garden: July 28, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for July 28, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and this will be the final episode from the show for 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Kevin Christiansen and Evan Alderman, Agribusiness Instructors from Southeast Community College in Beatrice

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/44qr and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts. This Survey will Close on August 18th.

1.The first caller of the day wants to know if they can still treat for bagworms that were missed with the first application?

A. If the bag is less than 1 inch in length, insecticide applications will still be effective. However, if the bags are larger than 1 inch in length, the insecticides will not work very well. Because this tree has already been sprayed this year and still has bags, I would remind everyone to ensure that they spray efficiently and according to the label, leaving areas untreated can lead to more resistance if those bagworms contacted a small concentration of the chemicals that didn’t kill them.

2. This caller called to ask me what was the best insecticide to spray for bagworms, since I left that out on the first call?

A. Tempo or Bt would be most effective. Bt is the safer alternative because it won’t harm a lot of pollinators as it just targets insects in the Lepidopteran family of insects which includes butterflies, skippers, and moths.

3. A caller has a redbud tree that blew over in a storm this spring. The roots of this tree have begun to grow some suckers. Can one of those suckers be cared for to grow into another redbud tree?

A. Yes, the suckers can be trained into a new tree. It would help the growth of the one you choose to grow if you leave the other suckers for a while as well. All of the suckers will provide energy and food to the roots, so leaving extras for a while will help. Once the main stem gets growing, you can remove the others to push the one upright.

This caller also wanted to know if he can prune his magnolia tree so he can mow under it?

A. As long as the branches are not more than half the size of the trunk and as long as you aren’t removing more than a quarter of the overall canopy the branches may be removed. The best time to prune a magnolia tree is just after it blooms in the spring, pruning now will cut off flower buds that have already developed for next spring. If the branches that would need to be removed for mowing are too large, it might be wise to change the turf to shade perennials such as carex, bleeding hearts, hostas, coral bells, jack in the pulpit, jacobs ladder, Helleborus or Lenten Rose and many other great shade plants.

4. When is the correct time to prune a burning bush?

A. Late fall after the leaves fall off would be best. It is always easier to see the branches and where problem areas are if you prune in the dormant season. Also, it will allow the plant to quickly seal up the wounds in the spring flush of growth. It is not advised to prune now because pruning woody plants after the beginning of August until when they are dormant can hurt the plant. This may cause the plant to push new growth that would be more sensitive to cool temperatures causing more dieback in the plant.

5. A caller wants to know how do you know when Butternut and Acorn squash are mature?

A. These are both winter squash varieties so the fingernail test will work just as it does with a pumpkin. When you think the winter squash is mature, push your fingernail into the rind of the fruits. If your fingernail pokes through the rind, the squash is not mature, if your fingernail does not puncture the rind, it is a mature fruit. Winter squash should have a hard rind.

6. This caller wants to know how to control windmill grass in his lawn?

A. For perennial grassy weeds such as windmill grass, there are two options for managment, either use a Glyphosate product, such as roundup, on the weed and then reseed or use a product containing Mesotrione product, such as Tenacity, on the weed and not harm the grass. The tenacity is more expensive but will not kill your grass so there will be no need to overseed.

This caller also wanted to know what would be digging up his grass?

A. This is likely due to either skunks or racoons digging the grass trying to get to grubs living in the soil. See the following NebGuides to learn how to manage these animals: Raccoons and Skunks Also, if this is due to grubs, apply a grub control next June to reduce the grub population in your lawn.

7. A caller has tomato hornworms in her garden. How can they be controlled? She also wanted to know what grubs come from and how to control them?

A. Sevin will work to control hornworms. However, the population is not usually terrible and the hornworms can be removed by hand and thrown into a bucket of soapy water for control. Grubs are the immature form of Japanese beetles, May/June Beetles, Masked Chaffer for the majority of species in Nebraska. They can be controlled in June with a grub control like the Merit products that contain Imidacloprid.

8. This caller has a 1.5 foot tall tri-colored beech that was planted in full sun this spring. About a month ago, the leaves turned brown. The caller is watering it 2-3 gallons of water every other day. What is wrong with the Beech tree?

A. Beech trees like to be in a more protected location, so this tree may be getting too much sun and too much heat. Because it is such a small tree, there is still time to replant the tree in a more protected and slightly shadier environment. Also, this small of a tree would not need this much water. When replanting it, keep it watered every other day with only about 1 gallon of water each time. After a few weeks in it’s permanent location, you can water with 1-2 gallons of water once a week and continue to back off on days between each watering as the tree grows larger. Remember, this small of a tree will not have a very large root system and it is as easy to overwater a tree as it is to underwater one.

9. How do you control moles in the lawn?

A. Moles are best controlled with a Harpoon trap that can be purchased at most hardware stores. For management tips, see this NebGuide on Moles

10. This caller has a hibiscus tree with a braided trunk that she thought would grow to zone 4, is this hibiscus going to be able to survive in Nebraska winters?

A. Unfortunately, it is highly unlikely that this is a hardy hibiscus that will survive winters in Nebraska. There is a hardy hibiscus that will survive our winters outdoors and those are suited up to zone 4, there is also a tropical hibiscus that is sold here as an indoor plant and will not survive our winter conditions outdoors. I would say that the tropical hibiscus would be the type purchased with a braided trunk. It can survive indoors during the winter months, so she can dig it up and put it into a pot to bring indoors for the winter.

2014-05-29 11.32.16
Clover in a lawn

This caller also wanted to know how to control clover?

A. Clover should be managed in the fall of the year. It will take multiple applications over multiple years to fully control clover in the lawn. Use 2,4-D or triclopyr products in the fall. It is best to apply these products around September 30th and again around the middle to the end of October.

The final question from this caller was if she should cut back her Virginia creeper plant that is turning brown?

A. Leave it alone and allow the plant to come out of the browning on its own. This is a common problem with Virginia creeper that is not terribly damaging to the plant.

11. How do you control anthracnose in tomato plants?

A. A copper fungicide can be used in a vegetable garden if necessary. However, often with home vegetable gardens it isn’t worth the time and money to spray our vegetable crops as the diseases usually only last for a short time and then fade when the temperatures change a little. However, it seems for this caller that the disease is a problem every year. For more information on controlling the disease and how to manage your vegetable gardens to avoid disease problems, visit this Nebguide on Leaf and Fruit Diseases of Tomatoes.

12. A caller has carpenter bees digging holes in her shed and wants to know how to control them?

A. Carpenter bees are a beneficial insect, except when they are burrowing into the wood framing of buildings reducing their structural integrity. They are best controlled with a dust formulation of sevin. Leave the dust in the holes a few days and then the holes can be filled in with a wood putty. For more information, see this guide from Lancaster County Extension on Carpenter Bees.

13. The final caller of the day wants to know how to control ragweed?

A. At this point, the plant is growing too strong to be killed with a herbicide. The best time to treat is in the spring before the plants have grown too large. At that time, they can be treated with 2,4-D. Now, the best control would be to dig or chop out the plants.

Yard and Garden: August 5, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for August 5, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Graham Herbst, Community Forester Specialist with the Nebraska Forest Service

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/9b24 and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1. The first question of the day was a walk-in client wondering what the weird structures in his yard were?

A. These would be fungal formations. The one that popped open is a puffball and the other is a type of mushroom. Neither of these are edible, they are both poisonous. They will develop in a yard from decaying roots of old or removed trees. They can be removed manually if you would like or they will go away on their own.

2016-08-05 10.14.05
Puffball on the left, Mushroom on the right

2. A caller has a small tree that is leaning that looks like a palm tree, what is it and why is it leaning?

A. After visiting the home after the show, it was determined that the tree was a sumac. It is leaning because that is the growth habit of a sumac. They tend to form a colony and lean every direction for sunlight.

3. A caller has a zucchini plant that just all of a sudden started dying off. Is this plant just done for the year or can something else be wrong with it?

A. This is probably due to squash vine borer. There is no way to fix the problem once it has gotten to the point of wilt and death. When you remove the plant, cut open the stalk to see the borer caterpillar. For the remaining plants use sevin, eight, or bifenthrin at the base of the plants to reduce the chances of those plants getting the borer as well. You can also wrap the base of the plant with aluminum foil or a toilet paper tube to protect it from borers laying eggs to bore into the plants.

4. A caller has cedar trees that have pine cone structures all over them that are killing the trees. What are these and how can they be controlled?

A. Those would be bagworms. At this time of the year it is too late to control them as their feeding has greatly reduced and possibly stopped for the year. Once they are in their bag the sprays cannot penetrate the bags to get to them so there is no need to spray now. Pick off and destroy all the bags you can get to and next spring watch for them sooner to spray at the correct time of the year.

Bagworm4
Bagworm

5. With bagworms, will sevin work for spraying them?

A. Yes. Sevin, eight, bifenthrin, tempo, malathion, or bT are all good insecticides to use when the bagworms are actively feeding.

6. A caller has wild cucumber growing on trees. How can this be controlled?

A. This weed has shallow roots and will pull out easily. You can treat with a herbicide, but not as a spray because that would harm or even kill the tree it is growing on. You can paint roundup on the leaves to help control it.

7. This caller has a mature maple tree that has mushrooms growing in the center of it. Can it survive?

A. It is best to manage the trees shape throughout the life of the tree to help it from having to have large branches removed. At this point there is no way to fix the hole and decay that have already begun. If the tree is in a location that it will not hit structures or people it can be left up longer, but it would be best to have a certified arborist come take a look at it to determine if the tree is safe to stand or needs to be removed.

8. A caller has a tree that the roots were exposed during work on the house nearby and then the roots were covered back up. Now, there are a lot of tree suckers coming up throughout the lawn. Can Tordon be used to control these?

A. Tordon is not labeled for use in a landscape setting. Also, using any type of insecticide on the suckers could harm or even kill the main tree. Since these suckers are all growing in the lawn, it would be best to just continually mow them off. The suckers appeared because the tree was stressed from the construction around the roots. Sucker stop can be used to slow the growth of the suckers but not completely eliminate them.

9. An email question was asked how to control locusts that are taking over a pasture?

A. Grazon is a good choice for pastures as a full foliage treatment during June. You can cut the stump and do a basal treatment anytime. Another choice would include Dicamba or a Trimec product that contains dicamba.

10. Another email question came in with a cottonwood tree that has brown tips on the leaves and lots of ants on the tree. Are the ants causing the problem? Can this be controlled?

A. The brown tips could be from sunscald which is due to the heat and drought we have faced lately. Aphids are probably also present on the tree which would bring the ants in to feed on their honeydew excretions. The ants are not harmful to the tree. The aphids are not causing much of a problem. Control measures are not necessary. Mulch the tree and water it to help with sunscald.

11. A caller from Iowa has hostas that were variegated in the leaves for the past 20+ years and now the leaves are solid green. What is causing this?

A. This is called reversion. The plant is a hybrid or cultivar that has reverted back to the original plant or parent plant with solid green leaves. It will not turn back into the variegated form.

12. A caller wanted to know why windbreaks and trees along creeks are being removed?

A. Sometimes the trees get old and start to become a hazard after they die. It also allows for more farming areas. These windbreaks are beneficial to wildlife, insects, and soil microbes and to help reduce water pollution from pesticide and fertilizer runoff.

13. The last caller of the 2016 season wanted to know when to transplant clematis, iris, peony, spirea, and general perennials?

A. all of these can be transplanted in the fall. Wait until mid to late September before doing this to get through the hot, dry weather. Could be done in the spring with some of these as well, but fall would be great.

Thanks for all of the great questions on the show and for reading the blog posts! I look forward to another great season of Yard and Garden Live in 2017!! Keep reading my blog for other great updates on keeping your yards and gardens “Green and Growing”!

Yard and Garden: June 17, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 17, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Connie Fisk, Cass County Extension

1. The first caller of the day transplanted pear and maple trees in December. Recently, these trees turned brown and lost their leaves. What would cause this?

A. This year the weather has been ever-changing. The drastic change from wet and rainy to hot and dry has been hard on many of our plants. It sounds like these plants need watered. Water on a slow trickle about one time per week for 45 minutes-1 hour and make sure the trees have a mulch ring that is at least 2-3 feet out from the base of the tree and only about 2-3 inches deep.

2. This caller has a locust tree that he topped and wanted to use the removed branches to make a trellis for his vegetable garden. Now, the branches are sitting in a pile and sawdust has developed around them. What is this and is it concerning for his vegetable garden?

A. This would be either carpenter ants working on the decaying material of the branches or it could be another type of insect that is emerging from the branch that was developing in the branch over the winter months. This will not cause any problems to your vegetable garden.

*Note: It is not recommended to top a tree due to the weak, unproductive branches that will emerge from the tree.

3. A caller has scotch moss that she purchased for her fairy garden. She purchased it one month ago and has not had time to plant it into the fairy garden. Now, part of it has turned brown in the center of the plant. What can she do to fix this?

A. It should be planted into a garden or the fairy garden as soon as possible to ensure it gets room to grow. Also, this could be due to watering issues. She can prune out the dead growth and the rest should be fine if it gets planted.

4. This caller has 2 Northstar dwarf cherry trees that were planted this spring. One is fine but the other has not leaved out this spring. Will it survive?

A. No, it will probably not live at this point. It won’t hurt anything to leave it in for this growing season to see if it comes out of it, but it is late in the season for no growth to be on the tree. Water it early in the morning to try to help it come out of possible late dormancy.

5. A caller has apple trees that were planted last year. They are 6-7 feet tall. One tree is beginning to bend over from the top, the leaves are green with some yellow leaves throughout. What would cause this?

A. This could be due to fireblight. This is a bacterial diseases that can cause dead leaves and the end of the infected branches will bend over like a shepherds hook. Prune out the infected area by cutting back into the healthy area 8-12 inches past where the scorched area appears. Clean pruners in a bleach water solution between each cut to reduce the risk of spreading the disease. Do not compost infected branches.

6. A caller has a 30 foot tall blue spruce that they would like to trim off some of the bottom branches. Is this an ok practice?

A. Yes, that can be done. The branches removed will not regrow and underneath the weeds and grasses will need to be controlled. It would be best to then use mulch and/or a groundcover under the tree to help with weeds and mowing around it.

7. This caller has a peach tree that split down the middle of the trunk. Can it be saved?

A. No, any assistance will be just to help the tree limp along until death. It would be best to replace the tree at this point. Once the tree splits it is then open to disease and insect issues with no way to remedy it for long-term management.

8. A caller has maple trees that are 5 years old and now the trunks look like the bark is peeling off and you can see the inside. This damage is on the South and West sides of the tree. What is it from?

A. This would be sunscald, also called southwest disease because the damage occurs on the south and west sides of the tree. Sunscald occurs in thin barked trees during the winter when the cells of the tree rapidly freeze and thaw on warm winter days. Now that the damage has occurred there is no control for it. For new, thin barked trees, they should be wrapped during the winter months for the first few years of their lives. The damage is minimal and won’t kill the tree.

9. This caller has hollyhocks that the lower leaves are drying up and falling off of the plant. What would cause that? Also, there are mums blooming now. Can she cut them back?

A. This sounds like a fungal leaf disease due to the wet spring. Remove the leaves and destroy them. Mums can be pinched back throughout the summer months to keep them at a good size and to help with blooms in the fall. They can be pinched back until the 4th of July.

10. A caller wanted to know what causes blue-green algae in a lake?

A. It is a combination of environment, low water levels, and nutrients found in the lake. For more information visit: http://water.unl.edu/lakes/toxicalgae-faqs

11. This caller lost 2 peach trees and a plum to borers. Is it common? Did the tree have borers when it was purchased? Can others be saved?

A. Borers are common in peach trees. They can be treated. For information on treating these borers, visit the spray guides section on https://food.unl.edu/local-food-production

12. An email question came through with an algae problem in a birdbath. What can be done to control this algae?

A. This birdbath needs to be cleaned more often and scrubbed out to remove algae growing on the bottom of the birdbath. For more information visit: http://lancaster.unl.edu/pest/resources/waterbirds.shtml

13. A caller has a leaf tree that has developed peaches every year except for the past 2 years. What would be causing this?

A. A late frost has occurred the past 2 growing seasons which would cause a decrease if not an entire loss of the peaches that had begun before this frost occurred. There has also been low pollination the past couple of years due to wet spring during the pollination period.

14. This caller has a established silver maples that are suckering. Can this be sprayed with anything to stop the suckers from forming?

A. Unfortunately, no chemicals can be used on suckers because this growth is coming from the roots of the main tree. Chemicals used on the suckers will kill the entire tree. The best defense for suckers is to continually prune them out.

15. A caller has apples that tend to get worms and spots on the fruits. What can be done to help with these problems?

A. For backyard trees it might be best to just tolerate occasional insect and disease pests. If the problems are minimal, it is much less work to just cut out the bad spots for home use. You can use insecticides, just follow the regulations on the spray guides found at: https://food.unl.edu/local-food-production Sanitation is also important, remove and destroy all fruits off the tree and off the ground and leaves around the tree in the fall to destroy overwintering locations for these pests.

puffball
Puffballs are identified by their solid structure throughout the fruiting body, which is typically spherical in shape. (Photo from NebGuide Mushrooms, Fairy Rings, and Other Nuisance Fungi in the Landscape courtesy of R. Mulrooney, University of Delaware)

16. The final caller of the day has a fungus in the lawn that is like a ball on top of the ground that when pushed on releases many spores. What would this be?

A. This would be a puffball. A type of mushroom. There is no control for them, it is best to just remove the puffball structures as you see them and destroy them.

Yard and Garden: April 1, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 1, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Daryl Andersen and Kent Thompson from the Little Blue NRD

1. The first caller of the 2016 season has boxelder bugs in their home and need to know how to control them.

A. Boxelder bugs are not harmful to humans and will not populate within our homes. They enter in the fall and will emerge in the spring to leave our homes and go back outdoors. If found indoors, it is best to just vacuum them up or dispose of them in other manners. Barrier sprays around the home will not eliminate the problem, but they can reduce the numbers found in the home. Also, make sure that all cracks and crevices in your home are sealed up and that all screens on windows and doors don’t have any holes in them.

2. This caller has a very sandy lawn, what is the best turf for this area?

A. They may want to do a soil test to let them know for sure what they are dealing with. The best turfgrass selections for this area are Kentucky bluegrass and turf-type tall fescue. You can either select a mixture of these two turfgrasses or find 100 percent of either of them. These grasses perform the best in our environment. It might be a good idea to add organic matter to the lawn area to help improve the soil. Aerate the lawn first then apply a thin layer of compost and rake or lightly till that into the top layer, then overseed the lawn. Now is a great time to overseed, apply light, frequent watering to keep the seed moist while it is germinating.

3. This caller has an old windbreak. They are looking to replant parts of it with red cedars in a multi-row windbreak. How many trees would they need, what is the spacing for these trees? What kind of preparation should they do to the site prior to planting?

A. The NRCS has specifications on tree spacing based on the species. For eastern red cedar, they recommend 12-15 feet between each tree for spacing. Based on that and the space she has in her windbreak, she can figure out how many trees she should plan to order from the NRD. This fall would be a good time to till up the area to prepare it for the trees to be planted next spring. Kent Thompson suggests preparing the soil for tree planting like they would prepare the area for a garden.

4. This caller has ladybugs in their home and wants to know how to get rid of them and where they are coming from?

A. Ladybugs are a predatory insect, meaning that they feed on other insects, such as aphids. They can be found outdoors on many different plant species based on their food sources. Ladybugs are one of the insects that move indoors during the fall and then leave the house in the spring to go back outdoors, so we often see them in the home in both seasons. They are not harmful to us when they come indoors. If found indoors, it is best to just vacuum them up or dispose of them in other manners. Barrier sprays around the home will not eliminate the problem, but they can reduce the numbers found in the home. Also, make sure that all cracks and crevices in your home are sealed up and that all screens on windows and doors don’t have any holes in them.

Termites
Photo of Termites from UNL Department of Entomology

5. Does wood mulch increase the likelihood of termites in our homes?

A. No, wood chip mulches are great to use for plant health. Termites will not survive in mulch if they are found in the trees being made into mulch due to the mulching process or because they dry out to quickly in mulches. However, it is best to not place mulch in locations where it is touching wood window frames or siding. According to Iowa State University, mulches increase the moisture in the soil which favors termite exploration, but any mulch will increase the moisture in the soil. So you can continue to use wood chip mulches because they are the best mulch for plants.

6. This caller wants to know if there are any regulations on rain barrels in the Fairbury area and if a rain barrel is a good option for watering?

A. There are currently no regulations against the use of a rain barrel in Nebraska. Rain barrels are a great option for watering, however it is recommended that this water not be used on vegetable gardens due to the contaminants in the water from the roof that may get into the plant parts we consume. It is a great way to save our fresh, clean water for other uses and to use rain water for watering the lawn, trees, shrubs, and flowers. Be sure to use the water in a timely fashion so that it doesn’t sit too long and attract mosquitoes, or use a screen over the entrance hole to keep insects out of the water.

7. A caller planted 3-4 feet tall blue spruces last year through the correctly recommended practices of planting a tree. He purchased the trees from a grower in Oregon. He watered as needed but avoided overwatering. The trees were checked for diseases with none found. What caused this death and how can he avoid it when he replants?

A. The sample of the trees showed that these trees suffered from environmental stress, which can be any number of problems. These trees are planted on a new site with no protection from wind and construction type of soil. The trees purchased for replanted should be purchased from a local source. A soil test could be done to see if there is any nutrients that should be added to the soil prior to planting for better health of the trees. Otherwise, this problem with environmental stress is common and hard to understand.

8. A caller has a sewer smell to his water, does he need new pipes?

A. Call the plumber or the city to have them look at it. It may be a situation where new pipes are needed, but we can’t tell for sure.

9. This caller has a problem with wild oats growing in their lawn, what can be done to eliminate this weed?

A. Glyphosate products, such as roundup, would be the only thing approved for use in the lawn. Then he will have to overseed. As long as the wild oats are up and growing now, he could go in and spray them and wait a week then overseed the area to bring grass back in and keep the wild oats out.

2016-04-01 10.52.50
Galls on a tree branch

10. A person brought in a tree with odd, round structures on the branches. What are they and can they be controlled?

A. These are galls. Galls are produced by insects and are generally not harmful to trees. if they get high in populations, like they often do on bur oak trees, they can reduce the vigor and growth of the trees. It is very difficult to effectively treat them with insecticides. Cultural controls, such as cleaning up all debris and pruning out and destroying affected areas would be the best control.

11. This caller has fruit trees that are suckering or producing growth from the base of the trunk where it comes out of the ground. What can they do about these suckers?

A. Suckers can be removed from any tree any time throughout the growing season, and should be removed so they don’t get too large and take too much water and nutrients from the main plant. Don’t spray these or use any stump treatment on them after you cut them off or you can damage or even kill the main plant.

12. A caller has a red oak that is slower to leaf out but by May it is usually leafed out well with large, nicely colored leaves throughout the entire tree. Is this a concern that it is slow to leaf out?

A. If the tree does eventually come out and leaf with full-sized leaves throughout the entire canopy and the leaves have good color, it is not a concern. Some trees are just a little later to leaf out than others to avoid highs and lows of spring weather. As long as the tree does come out by summer with leaves the way they should grow and throughout the canopy, it is in good health.

crabgrass, Joseph Berger, Bugwood
Crabgrass Photo By: Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org

13. This caller wanted to know when to fertilize with crabgrass control and when to overseed their lawn?

A. Crabgrass control and overseeding should not be applied at the same time as the crabgrass pre-emergence will also prevent the germination of our turfgrass seed. Overseeding can be done in the month of April, it is better to get it down from April 1-15 but can be done as late as the end of April. Once overseeding is completed, no chemicals should be applied until 3 mowings have been done on the new grass seed. Fertilization should be applied around Arbor Day. Crabgrass control needs to be applied when the soil temperatures have reached 55 degrees Fahrenheit because crabgrass germinates at 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit. As of April 1, Beatrice soil temperatures were at 47.6 degrees Fahrenheit, so we are still 1-2 weeks away from applying crabgrass control.

14. A caller has a soft water system that was installed and goes through the outside water faucet. Will this hurt plants that are watered by this softened water?

A. This water contains a higher level of sodium after it goes through the softener because the water softener exchanges calcium and magnesium for sodium. This sodium can replace potassium in plants and disrupt the functions in the plants, causing it to die, according to Illinois Extension. So, due to the high sodium content, softened water is not recommended to be used on household plants, lawns, or gardens. It might be a good idea for this caller to try out a rain barrel for watering their lawn and garden areas.

15. The final caller of the day has a pear tree that is 7-8 years old and has very low blooming. What is causing that?

A. Many pear trees need to be cross pollinated from a different species or variety of pear tree to produce fruit. It would be helpful to plant another type of pear tree in your landscape to help pollinate the tree. Also, remember to not spray chemicals on the tree while the tree is in bloom to avoid damaging any pollinator insects.

Yard and Garden: June 12, 2015

Yard and Garden Green Logo

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 12, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Natalia Bjorklund, Extension Educator in Dodge County

1. This caller has asparagus that is going to seed and is growing very large, does it need to be left up and growing all year?

A: It is best to allow the plants to grow all summer. This will allow it to build up nutrients to be used next spring to get the plant growing early in the season. It can be cut back to the ground late in the fall.

2. A caller had rabbits that eat his tomato plants off at the ground level. Will these plants grow back or should he replant?

A: This late in the season it would be best to replant the tomato plants. It is also advised that a rabbit fence is put up around the garden. To keep rabbits out of a garden, the fence needs to be at least 2 feet tall.

3. A lady has Black-eyed Susan’s growing in her garden for a couple of years now and they have gotten black spots on the leaves of the plants. She put sevin on it and the plant still has black spots on it.

A: This would be a fungal leaf spot disease that is common on many asters including Black-eyed Susan. Sevin is an insecticide that would only be affective on insects and not on fungi. Cleaning up the garden in the fall and removing infected leaves throughout the growing season will help reduce the spread of this disease. Also, ensure that when watering is necessary, it is applied to the base of the plant rather than over the top of the leaves. This is not a disease that typically needs to be treated for as it causes only minimal damage to the plant.

4. A woman who is moving from her home would like to know if it will be alright for her to transplant her iris and lilies to her new home at this time of the year?

A: The best time to transplant these would be in the fall, but if necessary, they can be transplanted now. Just take time to give these plants extra care and ensure that they are getting sufficient water throughout the season as they will not have a well-developed root system to deal with the hot and dry conditions we typically see in the summer months.

5. When is the best time to transplant peonies and how deep of a root system needs to be taken with the plants?

A: Fall is the best time to transplant peonies. When transplanting any plant take as much of the rootball as is possible and backfill with the same soil that was removed from the new location when the hole is dug. For peonies, pay close attention to where they are planted currently and make sure that they are not planted any deeper in their new location or they will not bloom again until they are lifted to higher in the soil profile.

6. A caller’s husband sprayed her garden area with Roundup. When can she safely plant this into a vegetable garden?

A: It will be fine to replant. As long as you wait 3 days to replant after roundup, or any glyphosate product, it will not harm the crops you plant on it.

7. A gentleman is growing purple onions and now they have started to produce seedheads. What should be done about this, is it a concern?

A: Cut off the seedheads or they will take too much energy to put into the seedheads and not enough into the onion.

8. A gentleman has a tree that is suckering. Can he spray anything on those to stop the growth of so many?

A: No, these suckers are coming up from the roots of the main tree. Anything sprayed on the suckers will translocate into the entire tree. The best control for suckers on a tree is to continually prune them off throughout the growing season.

2014-06-12 16.08.12

9. A caller has a spirea that is 3-4 feet tall. Is this as large as they should get? When should they be pruned for maximum growth?

A: Spireas typically grow to 3-4 feet, so this is probably about full grown size. Some varieties will grow larger and some will grow smaller, it depends on the variety, but most commonly they are found in the 3-4 foot range. If it is a summer blooming spirea prune it in the late winter or early spring just before growth begins. If it is a variety of spirea that blooms in the spring, prune it in the late spring, just after it has finished blooming for the year.

10. A caller has tomato plants that were planted in a location 75 feet away from where they are typically planted because they always see leaf curling and they are still curling up in the new location. What is causing this and how can it be remedied?

A: This could be a herbicide drift issue which will cause cupping, curling, and distortion of the leaves and stems. It could also be a physiological leaf roll issue that is common this year due to the wet, cooler weather. The plant will grow out of either of these issues to not be problematic to the plants later in the growing season.

11. A lady was wondering when hibiscus can be transplanted?

A: It can be transplanted either now or in the fall when you can see the plant because it is late to emerge in the spring.

12. A caller has broccoli growing in his garden that now has developed holes in the leaves. Will sevin or eight work for this problem?

A: Yes, this is probably due to cabbage looper which can be controlled with a general insecticide such as sevin or eight.

13. A gentleman has tomatoes that have curled up leaves that look like they have been sprayed. Is it a spray drift issue?

A: Tomatoes are very sensitive to spray drift so it could be that. It could also be physiological leaf curl. Both of these problems will work their way out of the plants.

14. The last caller of the day has potatoes that are turning yellow and wilting over. What is causing that?

A: This is probably due to too much moisture. Check the potatoes for rot.