Yard and Garden: April 14, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 7, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: George Pinkerton, Director of Landscape Maintenance at Downtown Lincoln

1. The first question came from a caller wondering what the timing is for crabgrass preventer?

A: Typically we go with mid-to late April for application of crabgrass preventer. Crabgrass germinates when soil temperatures reach 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit. In most of the Southeast Nebraska area, we have just recently hit that. Anytime in the next couple of weeks would be fine to apply your crabgrass preventer. It might be best for control to apply a split application this year. For a split application, apply half of the recommended rate now and the other half of the recommended rate 8-10 weeks later. The split application will give you a longer season of control for crabgrass and other annual grassy weeds.

2. A caller was wondering about their gladiolus bulbs. They have had problems with thrips insects in the past and they had heard they should soak their bulbs in lysol to control them. Is this a good method of control or is there something better?

A: As it turns out, you can soak the corms in a solution of lysol water prior to storage of the corms over the winter months, according to the University of Minnesota Extension. You can also dust the corms with a sevin dust prior to storage in the late fall, store them with mothballs, or store them at colder temperatures such as 35-40 degrees F as well. If you are looking for control at this time, it would be best to spray the plants as you see the streaking damage beginning from the thrips feeding in the spring and summer months. You can use any general insecticide for this.

3. This caller has a sugar maple that was hit with hail 5 years ago and now has a great deal of damage to the trunk of the tree. They have sprayed the trunk with a sealant and used a wrap. Will the tree survive or should it be removed now?

A: At this point, I would observe the tree to watch for signs of death occurring through the tree. The damage that is there cannot be fixed now that it has occurred. If you don’t like the look of the damage you can remove and replace the tree or you can wait until it starts to dieback. It is hard to say how long the tree will live now that the damage has occurred.

2012-05-25 12.04.38

Bare lawn in need of overseeding.

4. A caller wants to reseed. What seed should he use?

A: For a new seeding, use a turf-type tall fescue or a Kentucky bluegrass. Use either 100% of either of these types or use a 50% mix of the two. For more information, see this article from the UNL Turfgrass Department on Choosing Grass Seed.

5. A caller has a section in fairly high shade that died out last year. Why and can it be reseeded?

A: In locations of very high shade turf doesn’t always do well. The caller said this had been growing there for 25 years so it could have been a fluke that the lawn died out last year. You can reseed now with regular turf or you can use a shady groundcover such as a carex species.

6. When is the time to transplant coreopsis to a location with more sun?

A: Now would be a great time. Mid April through mid-late May is a great time to transplant perennials.

7. This caller has some large pin oaks that need to be pruned to make it easier to mow underneath the tree. Is it too late now to do that?

A: Yes, it would be better to wait until late fall to prune the oaks now. Oak trees are susceptible to oak wilt which is spread by a beetle in the summer months. It is best to avoid pruning them at this time of the year to reduce the incidence of disease.

8. What kind of tree would be a good choice for shade production in a backyard?

A: Any of the oak species, shagbark hickory, sycamore, Linden, Kentucky coffeetree, Black locust, thornless honeylocust, hackberry, and many others.

Curly Dock, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ, Bugwood

Photo of Curly Dock from Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

9. A caller wants to know what to do for management of curly dock?

A: 2,4-D or Trimec can be used this time of year or use a mixture of 2,4-D and Roundup.

10. What do you do for thistles growing throughout a yard?

A: 2,4-D or Trimec, but these products are best used in the late fall or before flowering. Thistles are a biennial so if you can dig up the plants as a rosette in the first year of growth they will die.

11. This caller has cherry trees that are suckering. Can one of the suckers be dug up now to start another plant?

A: Yes, it can be done now, but fall would be a better time of the year for this. If it needs to be done, it can be done now. However, depending on the type of sucker growth, the new plants may not be the same as the original plant or they may have weak growth.

12. An email from a listener asked what is wrong with his pin oak that has leaves that are curled up like they were hit with a spray? He wondered if they were too close to the windbreak that is 20 feet away? Is there a certain distance you want to stay away from your windbreak when planting other trees?

A: You do need to give your trees space to grow, but pin oaks are often planted as a third, interior row to a windbreak. The spacing between rows would be 15-20 feet, so the proximity to the windbreak would not be a problem in this instance. Most of the time if a tree is lightly hit with spray drift from a pesticide, it will not show in the tree every year unless it is hit every year. In this case, I would ask for a picture or sample to help with further diagnosis.

13. When is the best time to transplant peonies? Why isn’t the rhubarb up yet?

A: Fall is the best time to transplant peonies. If necessary for construction or moving purposes, it can be done yet this spring. Plant them at the same depth at their new location. As for the rhubarb, give it a few more weeks to see if it comes up before giving up on it. If it is in a location that is more exposed to cold winds the soil may have not warmed up enough yet this spring.

14. This caller wants to know what type of fertilizer to use in a garden?

A: A low grade, balanced fertilizer is best for a garden, like a 10-10-10 or 12-12-12 with slow release fertilizer is best.

15. The final caller of the day wanted to know if now was the time to fertilize pecans?

A: Many of the trees in our environment have sufficient nutrients for growth and so fertilization on these pecan trees may not be necessary. If you are concerned with the growth of the tree, take a soil test to see where the fertility levels are. If it is growing fine, don’t fertilize it because our trees and other plants can be over-fertilized which can cause injury or even death.

Yard and Garden: April 7, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 7, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Jonathan Larson, Extension Entomologist from Douglas-Sarpy Counties & Jody Green, Extension Entomologist from Lancaster County

1. The first question was to see if we could guess the caller’s favorite insect that was described as a moth with large, light green wings and feathery antennae?

A. This is a luna moth

2. A caller has moles in the yard and wants to know how to manage them?

A. A harpoon type of trap can be used, but should be prepped ahead of installation. This trap tends to work best if you stomp on a run to determine if it is an active run.  If it gets pushed back up, it is an active run. Stomp on this area a couple of more times and then set the trap to ensure the mole moves through the area. For more information on moles, click here for a publication from UNL on moles.

3. This caller wants to know how to get rid of creeping charlie in a lawn?

A. Triclopyr or a 2,4-D product can be used in the fall. For best control, use the product twice in the fall 2-3 weeks apart. September 30th and October 15th would be good dates for application. This is a tough weed to control, so it will take multiple years of multiple applications. A spring application of either of these products can be used as well to knock the weeds back for this year.

4. When can you transplant daylilies? Can they be planted into an area on the east side of the house with rock mulch?

A. Wait a couple of weeks until mid-late April to transplant them when the temperatures have warmed up more. Also, as long as the area is receiving at least 6 hours of sunlight daylilies will grow fine. This is a tough plant that will grow well in most conditions.

5. A caller has strawberries that had botrytis last year. When should they be sprayed to prevent the disease this year?

A. Apply from 5-10% bloom until flowers have finished blooming. For more information see the Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide from Midwest Universities including UNL.

6. This caller has a pear tree that last year had orange spots on the leaves later in the season. What is this and how can it be controlled?

A. This is due to a rust disease, Cedar-Hawthorn Rust. It is more common in years following a wet spring. The timing for management is in the spring, May and June. See this NebGuide on Cedar-apple rust and related rusts of apples and ornamentals.

7. A caller has started corn, watermelons, and cantaloupe indoors from seed. The seedlings are getting quite large. Can they be transplanted outdoors now?

A. Unfortunately it is still too cold to plant these crops outdoors. These are warm season crops that should not be planted until early May after the frost-free date. These crops could be direct seeded at that time or transplanted but they tend to not do well as a transplant.

8. A caller has 2-year-old rhubarb plants that have come up and have thin, limp stalks. What is wrong with the rhubarb?

A. This could be due to crown rot. Rhubarb is very sensitive to high moisture soils and will often develop a crown rot in these situations. Those plants that have limp stalks should be removed and you can replant in a new location where it has more well-drained soil.

Bagworm4

Bagworm

9. When and what should you spray for bagworms?

A. May-June is the time frame for treating bagworms. It is best to spray them when the new bags are 1/2-1 inches long. Longer than that and they won’t catch as much of the pesticide to die as well. For spray choices, any general insecticide will work, but using Bt would be the least damaging to other insects because Bt only affects insects in the Order of Lepidoptera which includes butterflies, moths, and skippers.

10. A caller has Asparagus that has a green moss-like structure growing on top of the ground around it. What is it and what can they do for it?

A. A picture would be helpful in identifying this pest. If it is actually a moss, they may look into the water in the area because it is likely that it is too wet. If it is a weed, pull or hoe the weed and then add a layer of mulch to prevent further weeds from coming in.

11. This caller wanted to know what to do to grow bigger onions and if they should put Epsom salt on their tomatoes to help them grow more?

A. These onions are growing 3 inches apart, they should be spaced out more for larger sized onions. Place plants or sets 1-6″ apart in the rows, and 12-24″ between rows. For bulb production, plant onions in early spring. The number of leaves that form prior to bulbing determine the ultimate onion size. Since bulbing in each cultivar is triggered by a specific daylength, early planting is the most effective method of increasing bulb size, by allowing more time for leaves to form. If the onions do not grow well before bulb induction, the final bulb size may be smaller than desired. Avoid sets more than ¾ inch in diameter because they are likely to produce seed stalks.

As for the Epsom salt on tomatoes, no you should not apply this to your soil when you plant tomatoes. Our soils have a sufficient amount of magnesium and sulfate, which are the 2 ingredients in Epsom salt, so there is no need to apply more. If you need fertilizer, use a general fertilizer from the nursery or garden center.

12. A caller has a Japanese maple that was injured last May when the leaves curled up and fell off. The leaves never regrew through the summer last year. Will it come out of it?

 A: If it happened that early in the year last year and didn’t put on new leaves, it may be dead. Give it time this spring to green up. You can check if the tree is still alive by scraping the bark on a branch, if there is green underneath it is still alive, if there is brown it is dead.

13. What can you do to manage windmill grass?

A: Windmill grass is a perennial weed. You can use roundup and overseed or use a product containing mesotrione or Tenacity that will not harm your turf. Use the Tenacity in the late spring.

14. This caller wanted to know what to use for a pre-emergent herbicide in a strawberry patch?

A: Preen that is labeled for use in a vegetable garden would be allowed in a strawberry patch. The best control for weeds in strawberries would be to use mulch.

15. Can you use plants to repel insects?

A: Some plants may deter a few insects for a short time, but no, the plants are not concentrated enough to work against the insect pests.

16. A caller has an arborvitae that turned brown on the North side last fall. Will it be ok?

A: This could be due to bagworms or due to environmental stress. Arborvitae trees don’t like the sudden cool down in the fall and it can cause part or all of the plant to die quickly. Unfortunately, if the tree has turned brown all the way back into the trunk, the tree will not regrow on that section. Removal and replacement may be a better option for this plant.

17. This caller wanted to know when they can reseed their lawn and with what?

A: Mid to late April is the best time to reseed a lawn in Southeast Nebraska. Reseed with 100% Turf-type tall fescue or 100% Kentucky bluegrass or a 50% mix of each.

Squash bug-NH-pic monkey

18. A caller asked what to do about squash bugs in their vegetable garden?

A: Fall sanitation and cleaning up the garden will help a lot to reduce the eggs in the soil around your garden. When they do start coming out in the summer, you can use sevin, eight, or bifenthrin to control them. You will have to spray every 10-14 days through the growing season. Watch the Pre-Harvest Interval to know when you can harvest after spraying a chemical on your plants. You can also smash or remove the eggs you see which are tiny, football-shaped bronze colored eggs on the underside of the leaves typically found in the crotch of the leaf veins.

Yard and Garden: March 31, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for March 31, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Natalia Bjorklund, Nebraska Extension Educator in Dodge County

1. The first question was when can we begin applying crabgrass preventer and fertilizer to our lawns this spring?

A. These are both best applied in late April to early May. Crabgrass will not germinate until the soil temperatures are consistently at 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit.

2. A caller wanted to know if he should mulch his asparagus and if he can use ash wood mulch around his asparagus?

A. Yes, mulch is one of the best ways to manage weeds in an asparagus patch. Ash wood chips would be fine. You do want to avoid Walnut wood chips because walnuts produce juglone which is a chemical produced by the tree to act as a weed control for nearby plants. This helps walnut trees with competition in the wild.

3. This caller has a goldenrod that has grown too large and messy for the area where it is planted. How can it be killed and what Goldenrod would be a better choice for a less messy plant?

A. 2,4-D or simple hand removal should kill the plant. When purchasing a Goldenrod plant in the future, any of the varieties would be better than the straight species. Fireworks is a nice, open goldenrod. Wichita Mountains and Baby Blue would be good choices as well.

4. Is it too early to transplant hostas? When should you cut back warm season grasses?

A. Wait a couple of weeks to transplant the hostas until the soil has warmed up a little more. You can cut back the ornamental grasses anytime now. It is better to get the old growth cut off before growth resumes so you don’t cut off the new growth. For ease of cleanup with the ornamental grasses, wrap string or twine around the plant before cutting off the old materials so it stays together when taking to the compost pile.

5. A caller wanted to know how and when to prune roses?

A. Wait until a little later into April to start pruning them. It depends on the type of rose to know how to prune them. This sounds like a climbing rose which can be pruned back about 1/2 to reduce the size. Wait until they start greening up to know which areas of the canes have died back, the dieback should be removed as well. If the canes are long and lean over mowing areas or other things, they can be tied up to a trellis.

6. This caller wanted to know how to get rid of cockleburs?

A. While talking with the caller, it came up that the plant had very small yellow flowers on it and there were spines over the plant except right at the soil surface. This plant is in fact buffalobur, not cocklebur. These are easily pulled up if you pull where there are no spines. A 2,4-D product could also be used if there was a large amount of them in the lawn.

buffalobur, Howard F Schwartz, Colorado State Univ, Bugwood

Buffalobur plant from Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

7. A caller wanted to know if they should water in their crabgrass control?

A. The label will explain to you how a product should be applied for best efficacy. Always read and follow the label instructions to apply correctly. For many of the crabgrass preventers, they would need to be watered in, but again, check the label to be sure.

8. When should asparagus be fertilized?

A. Apply a general fertilizer or a composted manure to the bed after the last harvest or sometime in the fall.

9. This caller has mulberries growing in the windbreak. After they are cut down, what kind of stump treatment should be done to keep them from regrowing?

A. 2,4-D concentrate should be used as a stump treatment. This will take multiple applications and will be more effective if done in the fall. Each time the 2,4-D is reapplied it should be applied into newly drilled holes or to a freshly cut area of the stump.

10. A caller has cedars growing in their landscape. Under the cedars there is bare ground. What can they plant in that area to avoid weeds coming in?

A. The cedars are going to keep that area quite dark and the cedars will take the majority of the water in the soil so mulch would be a good alternative. If plants are desired, use a shade tolerant groundcover such as wintercreeper or vinca vine or perennial plants such as bleeding hearts, hostas, coral bells, jacob’s ladder, and others.

11. This caller has tiny cedar trees coming up throughout the lawn. How can they be controlled?

A. Cut them off at ground level. If a cedar is cut below any lateral growth it will not regrow. Mowing over them wouldn’t be low enough.

3-step pruning cut

Proper pruning cut, University of Missouri Extension

12. When is the best time to prune a maple tree that had a branch break in a storm?

A. As soon as the storm has passed and it is safe to do so, you should remove a branch that broke in the storm. If the damage occurred in a winter storm, let the ice and snow melt off first. Then, hire a certified arborist to come out and make a good pruning cut so that the tree can seal off the wound quickly and fully.

13. A caller has a hibiscus tree that is turning yellow and many of those yellow leaves are falling off the tree. It was moved indoors during the winter months in an area of the house with low sunlight. What is wrong with it and will it survive?

A. Hibiscus plants would need more sunlight than what it has received through the winter. It should be fine once it gets more sunlight. As the days get warmer, you can move it outdoors for more intense sunlight. It should be fine once it gets moved to better growing conditions.

14. This caller has a weeping willow tree that they would like to prune up a little. When can they prune it?

A. The weeping branches shouldn’t be pruned up too much or they could lose their weeping habit. Willows tend to have a heavy sap flow in the spring if they are pruned then, so it would be best to wait until later fall to prune a willow.

15. This caller has grasses that are coming up among the gravel paths around his daylily patch. What can he use to prevent those plants from coming up?

A. Preen is a great way to stop the germination of annual weeds, such as many of our weedy grass species. If they come up before the preen gets put down or if they grow as a perennial weed, you can use a post-emergent herbicide. If it is a grass that is growing out of place among daylilies, you can use Grass-B-Gon or a similar product to kill grasses.

henbit, steve dewey, Utah State Univ, Bugwood

Photo of henbit is from Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

16. What can be done to manage henbit?

A. At this time of the year, there is nothing very effective at controlling henbit. Henbit is a winter annual plant, meaning that it germinates in the fall and flowers and produces seed in the spring. It dies with the summer heat. As we are now seeing the purple flowers from henbit, there is no need to control what you are seeing. The seed is already present in the lawn for next year and what you would be spraying will die soon. You can hand pull it now and spray with a 2,4-D product late in the fall.

17. This caller has moon flowers that had a lot of hornworms on them last summer. What can be done this year to reduce the number of hornworms?

A. Just because there were hornworms there last year doesn’t necessarily mean you will have a lot this year. Hornworms are sporadic pests. They are easily controlled by hand removal. You can also use sevin or eight or any other general insecticide. Use Bt to protect other pollinators as Bt is only harmful to insects in the order Lepidoptera which includes butterflies and moths.

18. What do you do for bindweed in a vegetable garden?

A. If you haven’t planted yet this spring, you can roundup the plants before you prepare the soil for the summer vegetables. The plants will probably still be a problem later in the year as this is a difficult pest to control. When it comes back in the summer, you can carefully use roundup through the growing season. You can paint the glyphosate product onto the leaves of the bindweed avoiding spraying the desired plants.

Yard and Garden: August 5, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for August 5, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Graham Herbst, Community Forester Specialist with the Nebraska Forest Service

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/9b24 and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1. The first question of the day was a walk-in client wondering what the weird structures in his yard were?

A. These would be fungal formations. The one that popped open is a puffball and the other is a type of mushroom. Neither of these are edible, they are both poisonous. They will develop in a yard from decaying roots of old or removed trees. They can be removed manually if you would like or they will go away on their own.

2016-08-05 10.14.05

Puffball on the left, Mushroom on the right

2. A caller has a small tree that is leaning that looks like a palm tree, what is it and why is it leaning?

A. After visiting the home after the show, it was determined that the tree was a sumac. It is leaning because that is the growth habit of a sumac. They tend to form a colony and lean every direction for sunlight.

3. A caller has a zucchini plant that just all of a sudden started dying off. Is this plant just done for the year or can something else be wrong with it?

A. This is probably due to squash vine borer. There is no way to fix the problem once it has gotten to the point of wilt and death. When you remove the plant, cut open the stalk to see the borer caterpillar. For the remaining plants use sevin, eight, or bifenthrin at the base of the plants to reduce the chances of those plants getting the borer as well. You can also wrap the base of the plant with aluminum foil or a toilet paper tube to protect it from borers laying eggs to bore into the plants.

4. A caller has cedar trees that have pine cone structures all over them that are killing the trees. What are these and how can they be controlled?

A. Those would be bagworms. At this time of the year it is too late to control them as their feeding has greatly reduced and possibly stopped for the year. Once they are in their bag the sprays cannot penetrate the bags to get to them so there is no need to spray now. Pick off and destroy all the bags you can get to and next spring watch for them sooner to spray at the correct time of the year.

Bagworm4

Bagworm

5. With bagworms, will sevin work for spraying them?

A. Yes. Sevin, eight, bifenthrin, tempo, malathion, or bT are all good insecticides to use when the bagworms are actively feeding.

6. A caller has wild cucumber growing on trees. How can this be controlled?

A. This weed has shallow roots and will pull out easily. You can treat with a herbicide, but not as a spray because that would harm or even kill the tree it is growing on. You can paint roundup on the leaves to help control it.

7. This caller has a mature maple tree that has mushrooms growing in the center of it. Can it survive?

A. It is best to manage the trees shape throughout the life of the tree to help it from having to have large branches removed. At this point there is no way to fix the hole and decay that have already begun. If the tree is in a location that it will not hit structures or people it can be left up longer, but it would be best to have a certified arborist come take a look at it to determine if the tree is safe to stand or needs to be removed.

8. A caller has a tree that the roots were exposed during work on the house nearby and then the roots were covered back up. Now, there are a lot of tree suckers coming up throughout the lawn. Can Tordon be used to control these?

A. Tordon is not labeled for use in a landscape setting. Also, using any type of insecticide on the suckers could harm or even kill the main tree. Since these suckers are all growing in the lawn, it would be best to just continually mow them off. The suckers appeared because the tree was stressed from the construction around the roots. Sucker stop can be used to slow the growth of the suckers but not completely eliminate them.

9. An email question was asked how to control locusts that are taking over a pasture?

A. Grazon is a good choice for pastures as a full foliage treatment during June. You can cut the stump and do a basal treatment anytime. Another choice would include Dicamba or a Trimec product that contains dicamba.

10. Another email question came in with a cottonwood tree that has brown tips on the leaves and lots of ants on the tree. Are the ants causing the problem? Can this be controlled?

A. The brown tips could be from sunscald which is due to the heat and drought we have faced lately. Aphids are probably also present on the tree which would bring the ants in to feed on their honeydew excretions. The ants are not harmful to the tree. The aphids are not causing much of a problem. Control measures are not necessary. Mulch the tree and water it to help with sunscald.

11. A caller from Iowa has hostas that were variegated in the leaves for the past 20+ years and now the leaves are solid green. What is causing this?

A. This is called reversion. The plant is a hybrid or cultivar that has reverted back to the original plant or parent plant with solid green leaves. It will not turn back into the variegated form.

12. A caller wanted to know why windbreaks and trees along creeks are being removed?

A. Sometimes the trees get old and start to become a hazard after they die. It also allows for more farming areas. These windbreaks are beneficial to wildlife, insects, and soil microbes and to help reduce water pollution from pesticide and fertilizer runoff.

13. The last caller of the 2016 season wanted to know when to transplant clematis, iris, peony, spirea, and general perennials?

A. all of these can be transplanted in the fall. Wait until mid to late September before doing this to get through the hot, dry weather. Could be done in the spring with some of these as well, but fall would be great.

Thanks for all of the great questions on the show and for reading the blog posts! I look forward to another great season of Yard and Garden Live in 2017!! Keep reading my blog for other great updates on keeping your yards and gardens “Green and Growing”!

Yard and Garden: May 27, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 27, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dick Campbell, Owner of Campbell’s Nursery in Lincoln

1. The first question of the day came via email. A listener wanted to know how to control clover in their lawn?

A. Clover is best managed in the fall months when it is pulling nutrients from the leaves into the roots, it will take the chemical into the roots as well. Products with triclopyr work best, but 2,4-D will work as well. Make 2-3 applications in September and October for best control.

Mallow, Phil Westra, Co State Univ, Bugwood

Common Mallow photo by Phil Westra, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

2. A walk-in question was for identification of a weed.

A. This weed is mallow. It is a difficult weed that will move throughout our gardens. It can be controlled with a careful application of Glyphosate (Roundup). Be careful not to spray any other plants with the glyphosate product.

3. A caller wanted to know when she can transplant daylilies and Iris?

A. The daylily could be transplanted now. It would be best to move these in the spring or in the fall, but daylilies are a tough plant and would be fine if moved now as long as they are kept well watered when it is hot because the root system isn’t developed at the new location yet. Iris would be best if transplanted in the fall.

4. A caller has earthworms making his lawn uneven. What can be done to control those?  This caller also wanted to know if he can water houseplants with water that goes through a water softener?

A. Earthworms are very beneficial to our soils as they reduce compaction and add organic matter back to our soils. The damage from them is only seen for a couple of weeks in the spring with rains. If you can deal with it for a short time, it is best to avoid treating for them. If you have to treat, Sevin insecticide does have some management capabilities for your lawn. As for watering the houseplants with water from a water softener, it is best to use water prior to the softener due to the increase of salts in the water.

5. This caller wants to know how far away from the house a shade plant should be planted? She also wants to know how she can manage grass in Iris’?

A. Spacing the tree from the house depends on the tree chosen and what the full size of that tree is. For many of the oak or maple shade trees, it is best to go 25-35 feet or farther from the house to ensure no problems develop as the tree grows. The grass in the Iris bed can be controlled with Grass-B-Gon.

6. A caller has a cherry tree that the top broke off but it is still attached to the main trunk. Can it be saved?

A. There is no way to re-attach a broken off branch. This branch will have to be removed. Because this is the only branch that is still producing leaves and cherries, the tree should be removed and replaced.

7. A caller has 2 rhubarb patches that were damaged badly by hail. The leaves look terrible. Should those leaves be removed or left on the plant?

A. If there are new leaves growing below the damaged leaves, the damaged leaves can be removed. However, if those damaged leaves are all that is alive on the plant right now, they should be left on the plant until new leaves begin to grow so that the plant can still grow and build nutrients for next spring.

8. A sample was brought in of a trumpet vine with many little insect all over the stem, leaves, and flowers. The plant has been sprayed with Sevin with no control. What can be done for this trumpet vine?

A. Sevin is not an effective method of control for aphids. In high populations you can use Eight or Malathion. Aphids are not very damaging to our plants and they are fairly short lived. Given time, predatory insects will move onto the aphids to control them without chemicals.

9. This caller was looking into planting apple trees and found there is a disease called cedar-apple rust. Is this a concerning disease here and what should be done to avoid problems with it?

A. Yes, cedar-apple rust is a damaging problem for apple trees. The spores can spread up to 2 miles, so it is best to plant a resistant apple tree cultivar. It is also good to look for cultivars that are resistant to apple scab. For choosing your cultivar, here is a publication from Purdue that lists common apple tree varieties and their disease susceptibility: Disease Susceptibility of Common Apple Cultivars

10. A sample was brought in of a tulip tree with leaves that are puckered and rolled downward. What would be the problem with this tree?

A. This tree has aphids on the underside of the leaves that are sucking the juices out of the leaves. Aphids are not terribly damaging to our plants and are fairly short lived. In high populations you can use Eight or Malathion.

11. Is there a dry granular weed killer for the lawn? When is the time to move gooseberries, iris, peonies, and rhubarb?

A. Fertilome is a good dry, granular weed killer. This is best applied early in the morning so it will stick to the leaf blades with the morning dew. Gooseberries should be moved after dormancy. Iris and peonies should be moved in the fall, typically in September when the tops begin to turn yellow. The rhubarb should be moved after they are dormant in the fall or early spring.

12. This caller has asparagus that has been planted in this location for many years and is now dying out. She fertilizes 2-3 times per year with a general fertilizer. What is causing this problem and can it be fixed? She also wants to know if she can use canning salt or Epsom salt in her garden? And, finally, she wants to know what to do for the aphids on her honeysuckle?

A. Asparagus will die out due to age. It would be beneficial to dig it up this fall after it goes dormant and divide the plants to replant as individual clumps. When replanting, sprinkle some bone meal in the hole to help with fertility. As for using epsom salt in the garden, this is not necessary. Epsom salt is magnesium sulfate which is in good supply in Nebraska soils. If nutrients are necessary in your garden, it is best to use a general purpose fertilizer. Canning salt can harm your plants and damage the soil. It is not a recommended practice to use any type of salt in your garden. As for the honeysuckle aphids, those should be controlled with Eight or Malathion. The aphids on honeysuckle can cause witches broom to the plant so they should be controlled.

13. Do raspberries and blackberries need to be grown on a trellis?

A. Yes, a trellis or an espalier would be a good way to grow them. Here is a good guide to growing raspberries and blackberries from Missouri Extension

14. Can red and black raspberries be planted together?

A. Don’t plant them within 20 feet of each other or they will cross pollinate and the fruits will not taste as good.

15. A caller has rhubarb that is shooting up stalks with seeds on them. What should be done with those?

A. Those seed stalks should be removed. Cut the stalk off at the ground. If left the plant will put energy into producing seed that should be stored for leaf and stalk production.

16. The last caller of the day has a mandevilla plant that is growing outdoors in a pot with a trellis. The leaves are now turning yellow and black. What is causing this and how can it be managed?

A. This is a moisture issue. The heavy rains this year are causing a leaf fungus to occur. A rose and flower systemic containing a fungicide can be applied to the plant to help reduce the disease.

Yard and Garden: May 13, 2016

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This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 13, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Fred Baxendale, Horticulture Entomology Specialist, UNL

1. The first caller of the day wanted to know when to transplant Peonies? She also wanted to know if she moved them away from the black walnut tree would that help them grow?

A. It is best to transplant peonies in the fall, but it can be done in the spring as well. It would be fine to move them in the spring as well. It would be beneficial for the plant to be moved away from the black walnut tree to get away from the toxicity produced by the tree as a form of natural weed control for the tree to other plants. Black walnuts produce Juglone which reduces growth and, in some cases, kills the other plants so the black walnuts have less competition for water and nutrients. Planting things 50 yards from the tree will get it out of the zone where damage can occur.

2. A caller has a rose that is old and has grown to 6 feet tall. When can he transplant it? Also, what are the red “ticks” he found around his gardens when he has been working in them recently?

A. Roses are hard to transplant. Do the transplanting in the early spring of the year and take as much of the rootball as can be dug up when it is moved to help the shrub overcome the transplant shock. Maintain adequate water once it is moved. The red “ticks” would be clover mites. These are not damaging to the plants but can leave red marks on house siding and if inside on the walls and curtains. You can treat these with permethrin or insecticidal soap.

3. This caller has Peonies that accidentally got cut back drastically this year. Will they live through this and should she do anything for them?

A. They should be fine but they probably won’t bloom this year. Make sure they are adequately watered and they will regrow by the end of fall. They should be fine again next year.

EAB Damage Collage

Signs of an Emerald Ash Borer Infestation from Boulder Colorado

4. A caller has 2 ash trees in her yard. She has heard about Emerald Ash Borer and wanted to know if there was anything she could do to protect her trees?

A. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has not been found in Nebraska and we recommend waiting until EAB has been found within 15 miles of your trees before you begin treating them. It takes 2-4 years for the damage to show up in our trees once it is here, so you will have time to treat them when it does get here. In the meantime, don’t move firewood here from other locations and increase the diversity in your landscape to help fill in holes that may appear when EAB takes out your ash trees. Also, watch your trees for signs of EAB including top dieback, suckering at the base of the tree, increased woodpecker damage, bark falling off, and D-shaped exit holes and alert Nebraska Extension if your trees exhibit any of these signs of damage.

5. This caller has a 10-year-old red maple that has struggled to leaf out the past couple of years. The middle of the tree is entirely void of leaves. Should he remove the center of the tree?

A. Removing the center will not fix the problem. This could be a root issue or it may have been improperly planted which would take around 10 years to show signs of damage. This tree is near the end of its life and removal of the entire tree should be contemplated. There could be borers in the tree but that would be a secondary issue and using an insecticide on them wouldn’t fix the whole problem with this tree.

6. This caller planted a Bradford Pear 2 years ago, it is leaning now. What can be done to correct the leaning?

A. Don’t stake the tree to try to pull it back to the correct position. When we stake a tree to try to pull it back upright, this can cause a girdling issue to the tree and it is very damaging to the tree. Because this tree has only been planted for 2 years, it would be a good idea to try to dig it up and reposition it.

7. A caller has steep hills around his yard and doesn’t want to have to mow it. What groundcover choices would he have to grow instead of grass?

A. Buffalograss, dwarf sumac, crown vetch, or potentilla would all be good choices for this type of growing environment.

8. A caller wanted to know if she could use vinegar for weed control in the flower garden?

A. It is best to use pesticides that are labeled for use in the garden. Pesticides for weed control have been rigorously researched to ensure that they work properly and cause limited harm to the environment if applied correctly. When we use non-gardening products in the garden, there isn’t always research to know how those products will work in the garden and it may cause more problems to our plants or it may cause problems if they get into stormwater. If you want to avoid pesticides, it would be better to use cultural and mechanical methods of weed control such as hand pulling and using mulch for weed control.

9. This lady has ant hills in her lawn, what can she use to control them?

A. Ant colonies would be spreading now. Leave them alone now, but if they start to overrun the lawn or come inside, you can spray them with permethrin or bifenthrin. If they are not taking over the lawn, they are a predator insect so if you don’t need to control them, they can be beneficial for other bad insect management.

10. This caller has a barberry that she wants removed. Should she call Diggers Hotline before digging it up? Also, how can she remove and kill daylilies growing in her landscape?

A. Always call Diggers Hotline before you do any type of digging. It is a free service that will help you before a problem occurs. As for the Daylilies, the best option is to dig them up. Using pesticides on them would need repeated applications over many years. When you dig them up, you can offer them to your friends and family.

11. How can you control bromegrass in flowers and in strawberries?

A. In the flower garden, you can spray a Grass-B-Gon product to control the grass and not harm the flowers. Do not spray this to where it hits your lawn or any ornamental grasses. As for the strawberries, this product is not labeled for use in strawberries or other edible crops, so mulching and hand pulling would be the best option. You can also paint Glyphosate (Roundup) products on the leaves of the grass among the strawberries and not harm the strawberries.

crane fly, David Cappaert, Bugwood

Crane Fly photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.org

12. What are the giant mosquitoes this caller has been seeing flying around? What do they do? Are they mosquito killers?

A. These would be crane flies. They are not harmful to us. They feed on nectar when they are adults, but can sometimes be a problem in the turf. They are not mosquito killers, they are in the same order as mosquitoes and look like a large mosquito, but do not eat them. The immatures live in moist environments.

13. Would it be ok to spray a 2,4-D product this weekend?

A. Yes, 2,4-D can turn into a gas and spread to non-target plants if the temperatures for 72 hours after spraying is above 80 degrees Fahrenheit. So, with this cool down predicted where the temperatures will be in the 60’s for the weekend, this would be a great time to spray. Just make sure that the wind speeds are very low.

14. This caller has onions that the tops are dying back on. They tops curl up and die, why is that?

A. Onion thrips can cause streaking on leaves, this may be from onion thrips. Onion maggots will feed on developing bulbs as well. It could also be from a root rot issue. Dig up one of the onions that are not looking healthy and inspect the bulb for signs of insects or disease.

15. A caller has a recently planted black oak tree that has all of the leaves stripped off of it.

A. It could be from canker worms. They are a short-lived problem in our oak trees. Using the Eight product will help to control them.

16. This caller transplanted walking/winter onions. The bulbs are developing below ground and on top they are flowering but not developing the bulbs on top of the plant. What would cause that?

A. Try to fertilize the plant to help it with nutrients that may be missing from the growth of the plant.

Yard and Garden: June 12, 2015

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This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 12, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Natalia Bjorklund, Extension Educator in Dodge County

1. This caller has asparagus that is going to seed and is growing very large, does it need to be left up and growing all year?

A: It is best to allow the plants to grow all summer. This will allow it to build up nutrients to be used next spring to get the plant growing early in the season. It can be cut back to the ground late in the fall.

2. A caller had rabbits that eat his tomato plants off at the ground level. Will these plants grow back or should he replant?

A: This late in the season it would be best to replant the tomato plants. It is also advised that a rabbit fence is put up around the garden. To keep rabbits out of a garden, the fence needs to be at least 2 feet tall.

3. A lady has Black-eyed Susan’s growing in her garden for a couple of years now and they have gotten black spots on the leaves of the plants. She put sevin on it and the plant still has black spots on it.

A: This would be a fungal leaf spot disease that is common on many asters including Black-eyed Susan. Sevin is an insecticide that would only be affective on insects and not on fungi. Cleaning up the garden in the fall and removing infected leaves throughout the growing season will help reduce the spread of this disease. Also, ensure that when watering is necessary, it is applied to the base of the plant rather than over the top of the leaves. This is not a disease that typically needs to be treated for as it causes only minimal damage to the plant.

4. A woman who is moving from her home would like to know if it will be alright for her to transplant her iris and lilies to her new home at this time of the year?

A: The best time to transplant these would be in the fall, but if necessary, they can be transplanted now. Just take time to give these plants extra care and ensure that they are getting sufficient water throughout the season as they will not have a well-developed root system to deal with the hot and dry conditions we typically see in the summer months.

5. When is the best time to transplant peonies and how deep of a root system needs to be taken with the plants?

A: Fall is the best time to transplant peonies. When transplanting any plant take as much of the rootball as is possible and backfill with the same soil that was removed from the new location when the hole is dug. For peonies, pay close attention to where they are planted currently and make sure that they are not planted any deeper in their new location or they will not bloom again until they are lifted to higher in the soil profile.

6. A caller’s husband sprayed her garden area with Roundup. When can she safely plant this into a vegetable garden?

A: It will be fine to replant. As long as you wait 3 days to replant after roundup, or any glyphosate product, it will not harm the crops you plant on it.

7. A gentleman is growing purple onions and now they have started to produce seedheads. What should be done about this, is it a concern?

A: Cut off the seedheads or they will take too much energy to put into the seedheads and not enough into the onion.

8. A gentleman has a tree that is suckering. Can he spray anything on those to stop the growth of so many?

A: No, these suckers are coming up from the roots of the main tree. Anything sprayed on the suckers will translocate into the entire tree. The best control for suckers on a tree is to continually prune them off throughout the growing season.

2014-06-12 16.08.12

9. A caller has a spirea that is 3-4 feet tall. Is this as large as they should get? When should they be pruned for maximum growth?

A: Spireas typically grow to 3-4 feet, so this is probably about full grown size. Some varieties will grow larger and some will grow smaller, it depends on the variety, but most commonly they are found in the 3-4 foot range. If it is a summer blooming spirea prune it in the late winter or early spring just before growth begins. If it is a variety of spirea that blooms in the spring, prune it in the late spring, just after it has finished blooming for the year.

10. A caller has tomato plants that were planted in a location 75 feet away from where they are typically planted because they always see leaf curling and they are still curling up in the new location. What is causing this and how can it be remedied?

A: This could be a herbicide drift issue which will cause cupping, curling, and distortion of the leaves and stems. It could also be a physiological leaf roll issue that is common this year due to the wet, cooler weather. The plant will grow out of either of these issues to not be problematic to the plants later in the growing season.

11. A lady was wondering when hibiscus can be transplanted?

A: It can be transplanted either now or in the fall when you can see the plant because it is late to emerge in the spring.

12. A caller has broccoli growing in his garden that now has developed holes in the leaves. Will sevin or eight work for this problem?

A: Yes, this is probably due to cabbage looper which can be controlled with a general insecticide such as sevin or eight.

13. A gentleman has tomatoes that have curled up leaves that look like they have been sprayed. Is it a spray drift issue?

A: Tomatoes are very sensitive to spray drift so it could be that. It could also be physiological leaf curl. Both of these problems will work their way out of the plants.

14. The last caller of the day has potatoes that are turning yellow and wilting over. What is causing that?

A: This is probably due to too much moisture. Check the potatoes for rot.

Yard and Garden: June 5, 2015

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This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 5, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Daryl Andersen, Water Resource Specialist for the Little Blue NRD

1. A gentleman called to ask if it is too late to plant tomatoes now?

A: This year has been cooler and wetter than normal years. Many of our summer vegetable crops that have been planted earlier have not grown much yet, so it would be fine to still plant a tomato plant this year. The best way to determine if a plant can still be planted late in the spring would be to count backward from the time of year when you would like to be harvesting, base it on the number of days until harvest that are listed on the packet or tag for plants. If you grow Better Boy Tomatoes, the plant says it takes 72 days to maturity, so if you want to harvest by July 25 you would need to plant by May 14. If you planted Better Boy Tomatoes today that would be ready for harvest by August 16th. This gives you plenty of harvest time prior to frost.

2. A caller has a concrete birdbath that gets algae growth in it. How can this be cleaned and not harm the birds?

A: A birdbath should be cleaned every couple of days to prevent algae growth and to prevent mosquitoes from breeding in it. Never use chemicals to control algae. The best way to clean it would be to scrub it out with a brush. If necessary a bleach solution of 9 parts water to 1 part bleach can be used to clean the birdbath but it should be thoroughly rinsed afterward. There is a nice article: Water is for the Birds from Lancaster County Extension.

3. A caller wanted to know when the best time is to transplant peonies?

A: The best time to transplant peonies is in the fall before you cut them back for the winter. Make sure that you get them replanted at the same level they are currently planted at. If they are planted too deeply, they will not bloom.

4. A gentleman called with a question regarding water sensors for pivots, is crop metrics a good program compared to the program the NRD uses?

A: Both are equally good choices for water sensors. Either way, a water sensor is better than not having water sensors with the pivot. Crop metrics do not require the user to go into the field to check the status whereas other programs will require you to go into the field to see results of the sensors. Crop metrics will send information to your cell phone. You just need to make the choice that best works for you and your crops.

5. A lady called and wanted to know if her peach tree has no fruit coming on it, due to a late frost damaging the blossoms, can she prune it now?

A: It is best to wait until late February to early March for pruning on a fruit tree. Pruning it now can cause the tree to be more vulnerable to insect and disease problems that it may not face if it is pruned at the right time of the year.

6. A lady called wondering why her grape vine that is planted in compost flowers but does not produce fruit.

A: This area may be too high in nitrogen to produce fruit. Nitrogen is found in high amounts in compost and it is a fertilizer that helps the leafy area on plants. If too much nitrogen is present in the soil, the plant will push lush, green growth and no or low fruits. I would suggest transplanting the grape plant to an area that is lower in Nitrogen.

7. A caller has bittersweet vine that is not growing on a trellis and it is being damaged by the rabbits. How can she prevent the rabbit damage?

A: Place a trellis near the bittersweet vine to grow onto to keep it up off of the ground. The best rabbit control would be to put up a fence at least 2 feet tall around the base of the plant.

8. How late can green beans be planted yet this spring?

A: There is still time to get them planted yet this spring, just get them in as soon as possible. Refer to question 1 for timing of planting.

9. A caller has iris plants that have grass growing in them. What can be done to kill the grass and not the iris?

A: Grass-B-Gone and other products that contain fluazifop for the active ingredient.

10. The same caller has clover in her flower beds. How can those be controlled?

A: 2,4-D can be painted onto the leaves carefully in the fall when the weather is predicted to stay below 80 degrees Fahrenheit for 3 days following sprays. Be sure to not get the chemical onto the leaves of the desired plants.

11. A caller wanted to know if the NRD builds a pond on private land, does that pond have to be open to the public for fishing?

A: It depends on the funding options used to build the pond, but usually it does not have to be open to the public because it is on private land.

Yard and Garden: April 24, 2015

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This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 24, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Jeff Culbertson, Assistant Director of UNL Landscape Services

1. This caller wants to know why the water in her rain barrels is turning green and how to fix that problem?

A: The water should be used sooner from the rain barrels and not allowed to sit in it for very long periods of time. There is a great NebGuide on ‘Rainwater Harvesting with Rain Barrels‘. Algae can sometimes appear and can be reduced by:

  • Limit nutrient build-up in the barrel by reducing the amount of sediment and plant debris entering the barrel. These are sources of nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen that promote algae. Clean roof gutters at least annually. If hosing out the roof gutter, remove the rain barrel before cleaning. Consider installing gutter screens along with using screens/filters before the barrel inlet.
  • Clean the barrel at least once a year to remove sediment.
  • Use dark-colored, painted, or opaque barrels to limit light.
  • Place rain barrels in a shady location when possible.

2. This caller had a willow that is leafing out from the bottom without any growth at the top of the tree. Is this normal or what is wrong with the tree?

A: This could be due to dieback from the winter which is being seen throughout the landscape this year. It is still early in the season so the tree could come out of it, so give it time to see if it comes back. Scrape off some of the bark with your fingernail to see if underneath is brown or green. Green is healthy growing tissue, brown is not. If it seems to be dead later in the season, you can prune out some of the dead branches and the tree may still survive.

3. When is the best time to dig cedar trees from the pasture to transplant them into a windbreak?

A: Now would be a good time to do this. Make sure they are small trees and that they are protected from deer and rabbits in their new location. Keep them well watered.

4. What is a good rhubarb fertilizer?

A: 12-12-12 or 10-10-10 would be a good general fertilizer to use or manure in the fall.

5. This caller wanted to know if Ponderosa Pine was still a recommended tree due to the threat from Pine wilt?

A: Ponderosa Pine is only mildly affected by pine wilt. Very few ponderosa pines have been killed due to the disease. It is still on the list of trees from ReTree Nebraska. Watch these trees for tip and needle blight, 2 common needle diseases, that can be easily treated with fungicides.

6. A caller has 2 trees in her windbreak that were planted about 8 years prior to a storm that has caused them to lean now. It has been a couple of years since the storm, but the trees are still leaning. Can this lean be fixed?

A: They will grow straighter over time and eventually straighten up somewhat. If the lean is too much, they will not overcome that.

7. This caller has been gradually replacing a plum hedge with Lilacs. What can he do to prevent disease and insect problems in the lilacs?

A: After about 2-3 years of initial growth, begin annually removing the largest, woodiest stems from the lilac shrubs. This will help keep the shrubs with younger, better producing wood and it will help keep the borers and scale away from the plants. As for disease control, just be sure to space the lilacs properly. Most full sized lilacs will get 3-4 feet wide so space them about 4 feet apart to reduce the overlapping of the branches and leaves which can lead to more disease problems.

8. A caller has a large asparagus bed that wasn’t cleaned up last fall. What care can be done for the asparagus now and in the future?

A: It would be best to clean the asparagus up one time a year, either in the fall or late winter just before spring growth begins. To help reduce weeds after that, spray the weeds while they are green and the asparagus hasn’t emerged for the year yet in the spring. Fertilize the planting bed either in the spring with general purpose fertilizer or in the fall with manure or both times.

9. This caller has a rose bush on an old property and wants to know how to propagate it or transplant some of it to their home?

A: Remove and transplant any suckers on the plant will work on an older rose variety that wouldn’t have been grafted. Anytime now is a great time to transplant a rose bush.

10. This gentleman has French Dwarf Lilacs and he was told not to trim them out. Is this true?

A: These can be cut back or caned out annually to keep them smaller and to help them produce more flowers.

11. A caller had stumps from trees that were cut down last year. The stumps were treated with Tordon. Can he use the mulch they will make from the stumps in his landscape or would the Tordon still be in the wood chips?

A: Wood chips that were treated with Tordon could still have that pesticide residue in the wood chips. It should not be used around plants. Disclaimer: Tordon should NOT be used in a landscape setting, it is against label instructions. Always read and follow pesticide labels. Remember: The label is the Law.

2015-04-15 11.03.06

12. This gentleman had cedars with the tips of the branches turning brown this year. What is causing that and what should be done for it?

A: This could be winter kill as that is showing up in many juniper species this spring. It may also be Kabatina, a disease of junipers. The brown can be cut out of the trees at a branch crotch. The trees should live.

13. This caller was looking for a shade tree for her front yard that is fast growing, stays around 20 feet tall and possibly provides flowers or good color to the landscape.

A: Chanticleer or Cleveland Select Pear would be good for spring color. Crabapples can also grow to 20 feet tall and would provide a great deal of color and scent in the spring. Japanese Tree Lilac is another good choice for a smaller tree.

14. This caller is planting strawberries and raspberries. What kind of care would she need to provide them?

A: Here is a good guide from Sarah Browning on Summer Berries-Raspberry and Blackberry to guide you through the raspberries. Heritage is a good raspberry variety choice. This is a good guide from Lancaster County Extension on strawberry care called Growing Strawberries.

15. This caller has a pin oak tree that has iron deficiency. She has used the iron plugs on the trees but she is curious if there is another choice that will work better and for a longer period of time on the pin oaks?

A: This tree will continue to have problems once it starts to show signs from Iron Deficiency and it will eventually die from this nutrient problem. She can try to have a professional due trunk injections which will last longer each time, but this will have to be continued for the remainder of this trees life.

16. This caller wanted to know how to prepare cut lilac flowers to last longer indoors?

A: Cut the flowers before they have opened on the plant. Make a new cut on the stem and change the water daily. Use a preservative in the water. The preservative can be either a store bought product or make your own mixture by dissolving 4 heaping teaspoons of cane sugar and 2 tablespoons of white distilled vinegar in one quart of warm water.

17. This caller wanted to control the dandelions in his yard and not the clover. Can a chemical be used for this?

A: Using spot sprays of 2,4-D when the weather is calm and the temperatures are below 80 degrees Fahrenheit for the day of application and the 2 days following would help reduce damage to the clover. The other option would be to dig or hand pull the dandelions. The chemicals that would work for dandelion would also work to kill clover.

Happy Arbor Day! Plant a Tree!!

Image Courtesy of Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Image Courtesy of Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Yard and Garden: April 3, 2015

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This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 3, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Mark Harrell from the Nebraska Forest Service

1. Caller had grown tomatoes in the past that were growing in his basement and they were not growing well, what can he do to improve the growing conditions?

A: Increase the light intensity on the plants. Use one warm and one cool bulb in a utility light and keep that light 6 inches from the plants as they grow and keep the light on them for 14-16 hours per day. Also try to increase fertilizer use by applying it to the plants according to label directions. With new seedlings, use only at a half strength for the first few days after a plant has germinated.

2. Caller had Honeyberry Bushes that were growing for 3 years and they didn’t seem to have grown very much over these years, what might be causing this lack in growth? They are planted where the soil was brought in to build a building on.

A: It seems like the soil may be constricting root growth and then in turn would be restricting above-ground growth. It might be best to try to replant these in a location with less compacted soil.

3. A caller has a Euonymus shrub that is growing along the east side of her home had a growth along the stems that is furry or hairy, what might this growth be?

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Euonymus sarcoxie plant with aerial roots photo from caller.

A: It seems that this is a species of Euonymus, called Euonymus sarcoxie, which is a variety that vines. This furry appearance is actually aerial roots that is normal for this and many vining species of plants.

4. A walk-in client wanted to know what they can do for preparing their garden to reduce the number of squash bugs that attack their zucchini plants in the summer?

A: Cleaning up the garden space in the fall will reduce the overwintering site for these insects to help reduce the number the following year. For this spring, it will be best to look for the rusty colored eggs on the underside of the leaves of your zucchini, cucumber, and pumpkin plants and remove those leaves and throw them into a bucket of soapy water. Also, use chemicals through the growing season. Carbaryl, Permethrin, and Bifenthrin can be used throughout the growing season, alternating between all of these chemcials. Read and follow all label instructions and be sure to watch the post-harvest interval (PHI) to know when you can harvest after applying these chemicals.

5. A caller wanted to know when the best time to spray for borers on oak trees would be?

A: The best time to treat for oak borers would be the end of May to the beginning of June and it should be repeated 2 weeks after the first application.

6. A caller wanted to know what would be the best control for weeds in an asparagus plot?

A: Mulch is a very good control for weeds in asparagus gardens. There is also a preen that can be used on vegetable gardens. Glyphosate products, such as roundup, can be used very early in the spring before asparagus starts to grow and late in the fall after the asparagus plants have been snapped off to a level below the soil line. Sarah Browning has a great article on many weed management tactics for asparagus at: http://lancaster.unl.edu/hort/articles/2011/AsparagusWeeds.shtml

7. A caller wanted to know when the best time for fruit tree pruning would be and when to start spraying the orchard fruit tree sprays?

A: Fruit tree pruning is best done in February and March of the year. You should start spraying the fruit tree sprays as the buds begin to swell and on a 10-14 day schedule for the remainder of the growing season. Do not spray the trees during the period when they are blooming and being pollinated or you may kill or harm the bees and other pollinators needed for the fruits to show up.

8. A caller was starting seedlings indoors and the leaves were beginning to turn yellow. Why are they turning yellow and what can be done to improve this situation?

A: Be sure to fertilize these seedlings regularly with a water soluble fertilizer, according to the instructions on the label. Make sure to keep the lights 6 inches from the plants as they grow and keep the light on them for 14-16 hours per day.

9. A caller had a tree that was cut down last year and has many ants throughout the tree stump, even still after the tree has been cut down. Why is this and what can she do to reduce the ants?

A: These are probably carpenter ants that tunnel through decaying or rotting wood. They were not causing any harm to the tree and they are not a concern for nearby plants. If control is desired, sprinkle Carbaryl dust on the stump of the tree.

10. This caller had 2 questions. She had an arborvitae that rapidly went from green to brown and dead. What would cause this? She also had some junipers that turned completely brown from the bottom up but the inside was still green. What would cause this?

A: The arborvitae most likely is having problems due to dry conditions and possibly winterkill. Make sure this tree has a good mulch ring, only 2-3 inches deep, and keep the soil around it moist, but not wet. The junipers also appear to have environmental problems that have caused this issue. There was a rapid drop in temperatures last fall and a warm and dry winter which could cause problems to this plant and many evergreens.

11. A caller had zoysia grass in her yard that has been declining over the years and is not as dominant in her yard now as it used to. How can she fix this problem?

A: She can try to plug her yard with more zoysia grass to get it established again in those other areas where the cool season grasses and other weeds have come in. She would need to do weed control in those areas before trying the plugging and during the establishment period of the zoysia grass to reduce competition. The plugs should be placed 6-12 inches apart and it should be done in the late spring to early summer to allow for best establishment.

12. This caller is looking to move a rose bush to save it from an area planned to be transitioned into a vegetable garden. What is the best way to do this?

A: This can still be done yet this spring. He can prune it prior to moving it so it is more of a manageable size. Take as much of the rootball as is possible. Keep the shrub well watered at its new location and don’t plant it any deeper than what it is growing at now.

13. A caller wanted to know when the best time to plant potatoes would be?

A: Anytime now would be a good time to plant potatoes. Plant potatoes when the soil temperatures are around 40 degrees Fahrenheit.

14. A caller wanted to know when the best time to prune a smokebush would be?

A: Late winter is the best time to prune a smokebush.