Yard and Garden: May 12, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 12, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dr. Paul Read, Viticulture Specialist from UNL

1. The first caller of the day called to ask when is the best time to take cuttings from grape vines and how should it be completed?

A: To take a cutting, when you cut off the dormant growth from the previous year, you can take those branches and put them in moist sand to get them to root. After the last spring frost of the year, you can plant those rooted branches outdoors. When you do this method, you need 2-3 buds on each branch. Put at least 1 bud into the ground and have 1-2 buds out of the ground for leaf growth. At this time of the year, you can complete the layering method of propagation. For layering, just bury a few of the longer branches that are still attached to the vine. Once they root, you can cut them from the main plant and replant somewhere else.

2. A caller has a 7 year old peach tree that is dropping leaves like it is fall. What would be causing this to happen and can it be corrected?

A: This could be abiotic stress due to unfavorable environmental conditions. It could also be from peach tree borer. Look along the trunk for small borer holes or sap oozing from branches or the trunk to know if it is the borer. If borers, spray the trunk with a fruit tree insecticide spray. If it doesn’t seem to be from insects, keep the tree healthy through a good mulch ring and regular watering as needed when natural rains are infrequent.

3. This caller has 2 concord grapes that were producing well last year but were taken by the birds before they could be harvested. How can you keep these birds away?

A: Bird netting over the plants to keep the birds out is the only good, effective method of managing birds in grapes.

This caller also wanted to know what is wrong with her peach trees? She has 2 peach trees that are 9-10 years old that now have an orange sap oozing from the trunk.

A: This would be from gummosis, a fungal disease common on peach trees. There is no real cure for this disease, it is just best to prune out the small branches that are affected and cut 6-8 inches below the infected area. Dip your pruners into a bleach/water solution between cuts to prevent further spread of the disease. It could also be from peach tree borers. In that case, use an insecticide labeled for use on peaches for borers.

4. A caller has a row of cottonwoods but there is one tree in the middle that always has yellow leaves rather than green leaves. What is wrong with it and can it be corrected?

A: This is most likely due to an iron deficiency in this tree. That can be corrected by having a certified arborist come in to do a trunk injection. The granules or stakes around the tree are not very effective. Often, iron chlorosis is a sign of other problems with the tree and may be the beginning of the end for the tree. That being said, many of our trees live many years after developing an iron deficiency and some just need an iron injection every 5+ years to live a long and happy life.

Tree hole for blog

Photo of the damage occurring to the Maple tree.

5. A caller has some maples that were recently pruned and the branches had a fungus and some white powdery substance in them when the branches were removed. What is wrong with them and do they need to be removed?

A: This caller emailed me with photos of the problem so I could see for sure what is wrong with the plants and if it can be corrected or if it is a safety issue. Unfortunately, this does look like decay in the tree. Decay within the interior of the tree can be dangerous for when it may fall, the tree is not stable when it has decay. I would guess that the tree has a large limb that was removed at one time and it was too big or improperly cut and now there is a large hole leading into the tree. I would get a certified arborist out to take a look and possibly remove the tree.

6. This caller has a cedar windbreak and would like to plant crabapples. Can crabapple trees grow near a cedar tree?

A: Yes, you can plant crabapple trees near cedars, just make sure that you select a variety that is resistant to cedar-apple rust to avoid having to spray annually to avoid the damage from cedar-apple rust.

7. A caller has a blue spruce tree that is 8 feet tall and was planted 14 years ago that died over the winter months. What happened and how can it be avoided in the other trees in the row?

A: This could be due to a canker which is a fungal disease that stops the flow of water and nutrients from the canker point outward and upward through the tree. If the canker occurred on the lower part of the trunk it would cause the tree to die. There is no cure for canker and no way to prevent it. It could also be due to a root issue that could have happened when the tree was planted or in the nursery. The tree may have a root that girdled the stem killing the tree or it may have been planted to deeply. When you remove the tree, look at the root system to see if this was the problem.

8. This caller has small brown circles in the lawn all around a tree. This problem occurs every year later in the summer in the same location of the lawn. What would be causing this and can it be controlled?

A: This is most likely due to summer patch, a common lawn fungal disease that occurs in the mid-late summer. Normally, this isn’t something that is treated for because it doesn’t occur in the same location every year, but for this caller, it does. Management practices in the lawn can help, such as mowing higher and doing core aeration to reduce the thatch layer in the lawn. If necessary, fungicides labeled for summer patch can be used from now until the end of June.

Summer Patch, L. Giesler turf update

Summer Patch in Kentucky bluegrass photo by Loren Giesler, UNL Plant Pathology

9. What is a better species selection than using Bradford pear?

A: Chanticleer or Cleveland Select are better options for pear trees than a Bradford Pear. Bradford pears tend to have narrow branch arrangement that leads to more broken branches from high winds and storms. These two options are better choices because their branches are wider when arranged on the trunk.

10. A caller has a maple tree that is half green and half a much lighter green color. What would cause this and can it be corrected?

A: The soil pH is higher on one side. A disturbance on the one side could cause it to have iron deficiency on the lighter green side. Try to spray chelated iron on the lighter green side to fix the problem.

11. When is the best time to start asparagus?

A: Spring is the best time, from March to April is prime time for planting asparagus crowns. Be sure to still wait 3 years before full harvest begins.

12. The final caller of the day had 2 questions. She had botrytis on her strawberries last year and sprayed a week ago. Does she need to spray again? Also, can an Annabel Hydrangea be planted in full sun?

A: For the strawberries, apply from 5-10% bloom until flowers have finished blooming. For more information see the Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide from Midwest Universities including UNL. Annabel Hydrangea is one that prefers partial shade. I would avoid planting it in full sun on the South or West side of a building where it would get too hot.

 

What is wrong with my lawn?

What's Wrong With My Lawn blog post

This year has been extremely humid and warm. We have seen a summer full of warm temperatures during the day that cool down in the nighttime to the dew point, which has been causing a high number of turf diseases. We are also now experiencing a great deal of crabgrass and other summer annual weeds in our lawns. These are things that decrease the overall appearance of our lawns but they are not long lasting this late in the summer.

Brown patch is a fungal turf disease showing up in our lawns right now. This disease often shows up in lawns that were overwatered or were fertilized heavily in the summer months as brown patches in an otherwise green lawn. Upon closer investigation, you may notice that the leaves may have long tan-colored spots that are surrounded by a dark brown margin. You can avoid this disease by avoiding over-irrigation and over-fertilization of the lawn.

Summer Patch at Christenson Field, P Hay

Summer Patch on a baseball Field, Photo by Paul Hay, Nebraska Extension Educator in Gage County.

Summer patch is also showing up in our lawns right now. This fungal disease also leaves brown patches in your lawn, but usually they are in a circular pattern with an area of green turfgrass in the center, like a frog-eye appearance. The leaves do not have a distinct marking on them but the roots will be brown. The best control for summer patch is to follow fertilization and watering requirements to reduce the stress to your lawn.

The diseases that we see in our lawns this time of the year are mostly environmental. You can help to reduce the incidence of these diseases if you take good care of your lawn. Keeping the lawn mowed at 2-3 inches high, correct fertility, and correct watering, will help keep your turf healthy and able to compete with these diseases. Fungicides can be used, but they need to be applied as a preventative and are not usually necessary in home lawns. Home lawns can tolerate a low level of damage without the need for fungicides. If this is a problem that is seen in the same location of your lawn year after year, you may need to use a fungicide, but that should be used in the spring or in the summer as the first signs begin to appear in your lawn. At this time of the year, fungicides will not fix the damage that is already seen in the lawn this year. So in the late summer and fall, fungicides are not recommended.

crabgrass, Joseph Berger, Bugwood

Photo of Crabgrass by Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org

Crabgrass and other summer annual grasses are also becoming more problematic now. In addition to the maturation of plants that germinated earlier in summer, incidence has also increased from recent rains and warm weather that allowed more seed to germinate where a sufficient herbicide barrier is not still present, especially in full sun or thin turfgrass canopies. Control is not necessary this time of the year because the crabgrass present in your lawn now, will die with the first fall frost in a few weeks. It is the best environmentally and economically for you to use a pre-emergent herbicide next spring.

Lawn fertilization should occur with the holidays: Arbor Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, and Halloween. Applications for Labor Day can be done anytime now. Apply 1 pound of Nitrogen per 1,000 square feet on your lawn. Once the temperatures cool down, you can begin using 2,4-D products to combat broadleaf weeds such as dandelions, clover, and henbit. The fall is the best time to treat for the perennial weeds so that the chemical is taken into the roots with the nutrients the weeds have in their leaves that they store in their roots over the winter months. For henbit, it is best to treat this in the fall as well to kill it before it sets seed next spring.