Yard and Garden: June 23, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 23, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Mike Onnen, Manager for the Little Blue NRD & Donnie Engelhardt, Assistant Manager for the Little Blue NRD

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/44qr and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1.The first caller of the day wanted to know if it was time to spray for bagworms yet this year and what to use for bagworms?

A. Yes, the bags have emerged. There is time for a couple of weeks yet to get them sprayed, just make sure you spray before the bags are 1 inch in length for best control. You can use any general insecticide for controlling bagworms such as sevin, eight, bifenthrin, tempo, or Bt can be used for a safer control method. Bt will not harm bees and other beneficial insects.

Bagworm4

Bagworm

2. A caller has 2 large oak trees that when he parks his truck underneath it gets sticky from the aphids in the tree. What can be done to manage these?

A. The aphids are producing honeydew as an excretion and they do feed on the oak trees, but often this is not that damaging to the tree. You can spray for the aphids in the tree with a general insecticide, but if you give it a little time predatory insects will come in and kill the aphids. If you spray, you will kill the predators as well as the aphids. It is often not necessary to spray for aphids in a tree.

3. This caller has lilies that have grown too thick in her one garden bed. When can she divide these to transplant some in a new location?

A. This could be done this fall or you can wait and thin the lilies in the spring as well, either would be fine. I would advise against transplanting and dividing plants this time of year because in the heat, the plants don’t have enough roots to get to more water to keep them cool.

4. A caller has a weeping willow that has many leaves turning yellow and the tree is thinning. What would be wrong with the tree and how can it be managed?

A. This tree is likely dealing with environmental stress. There are not spots on the leaves to indicate a disease or damage that would be from insects. After viewing the photos, it is determined it could be due to improper planting as it looks too deep with no root flare. There may be stem girdling roots that would not be evident for a few years after planting.

5. How do you control ground squirrels in your yard?

A. There is a great publication on Ground Squirrels from the Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management which shows how to set a trap for ground squirrels.

6. A caller has Iris, yucca, and prickly pear cactus that are all getting many weeds growing in and around these plants. The weeds include both grasses and broadleaf weeds. How can the weeds be controlled without injuring the desired plants?

A. The grasses can be sprayed with Grass-B-Gon or another similar grass herbicide. Unfortunately, there isn’t a selective herbicide that will kill broadleaf weeds and not kill broadleaf desired plants. For the broadleaf weeds, the best defense is to hoe the weeds out and mulch the garden in the future to hold the weeds back.

7. This caller has a plum hedge that has holes in most of the leaves throughout the hedge. The holes form initially as a brown spot and then a hole appears. What would cause this?

A. This is likely due to herbicide drift. There is no control for that, but if it is minimal it shouldn’t impact the hedge too much. However, multiple years of herbicide drift to the same plants can start to stress and in some cases kill the plants.

8. A caller has onions that have formed a soft, brown spot on the onions when they were dug recently. What would cause this?

A. This is likely a rot issue that developed from a pathogen in the soil. It is always best practice to rotate the crops. Also, ensure that you properly cure your onions before storage.

9. How can you control sandburs?

A. Crabgrass control in the spring will work for sandburs as well as foxtail and crabgrass. All of these are annual grasses.

10. A caller has tried to plant roses in the same location for a couple of years now and it seems like they grow to about 18 inches, bloom, but then die over the winter months. The are planted in a garden with rock mulch, watered with a bucket of water as needed, and were pruned off in March. Why can’t the caller get the roses to live longer than one year?

A. This sounds like mostly environmental stress to these plants. Rock mulches are hot and absorb no water, switch to a wood chip mulch to cool the roots and hold moisture. Watering should be done with a soaker hose or other type of sprinkler system. When a bucket of water is poured over the plants as needed, the water fills up the top pores of the soil surface quickly and then spread out rather than down. A slow trickle on the plants for a while each week to wet the soil down to about 6-8 inches will be more beneficial. Pruning of roses is best done in the middle of April once growth has begun further to ensure healthy wood is not also removed with the dead wood too early in the spring. Add extra mulch around the plants in the winter months, up to 4-6 inches deep in the winter months, then spread the mulch out to 2-3 inches deep during the growing season. Extra mulch in the winter will help protect the plants from inconsistent temperatures in the winter.

11. This caller wants to know when to dig up garlic? He also wants to know if bleeding hearts can be cut back now?

A. Garlic should be harvested in July after 30-50% of the leaves have died back. Harvest during dry weather and leave the bulbs on the ground to dry for a week before storing. The flower stalks of bleeding hearts can be removed, but the leaves need to be left on the plants to build sugars for next years growth and flower production.

12. How can grasshoppers be controlled if they are in the flower garden?

A. Any general insecticide will work for grasshoppers in flower gardens. Sevin, eight, tempo, bifenthrin, and others will work for flowers. When treating grasshoppers, it is also important to treat the grassy areas of roadsides and ditches where grasshoppers are often found.

13. This caller has grass growing in his asparagus patch. How can the grass be controlled?

A. Hand pull and apply a mulch to the asparagus patch. The earlier you get the mulch applied in the season, the better the control will be. Also, after harvesting is complete, the asparagus can be snapped off below ground level and Roundup or another glyphosate product can be applied as long as there is no green asparagus above the ground.

 

Grasshoppers, J. Larson

The four main pest species of grasshopper in Neb. Top row two striped grasshopper adult, red legged grasshopper adult. Bottom row differential grasshopper adult, migratory grasshopper adult.

14. How can you control grasshoppers in the vegetable garden?

A. Sevin, eight, and bifenthrin are labeled for use in the vegetable garden. Also, remember to treat for grasshoppers in tall grasses along roadsides and ditches. Follow the PHI (pre-haravest interval) to know how many days after application necessary to wait to harvest the vegetables.

15. A caller wants to know when to transplant peach trees?

A. Fall or spring are both good times to transplant any trees.

16. The final caller of the day has a pond with moss or duckweed in it making it cloudy. What can be done to clean up the water?

A. Avast SRP is labeled for Duckweed and Copper sulfate can be used for Algae.

Advertisements

Yard and Garden: March 31, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for March 31, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Natalia Bjorklund, Nebraska Extension Educator in Dodge County

1. The first question was when can we begin applying crabgrass preventer and fertilizer to our lawns this spring?

A. These are both best applied in late April to early May. Crabgrass will not germinate until the soil temperatures are consistently at 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit.

2. A caller wanted to know if he should mulch his asparagus and if he can use ash wood mulch around his asparagus?

A. Yes, mulch is one of the best ways to manage weeds in an asparagus patch. Ash wood chips would be fine. You do want to avoid Walnut wood chips because walnuts produce juglone which is a chemical produced by the tree to act as a weed control for nearby plants. This helps walnut trees with competition in the wild.

3. This caller has a goldenrod that has grown too large and messy for the area where it is planted. How can it be killed and what Goldenrod would be a better choice for a less messy plant?

A. 2,4-D or simple hand removal should kill the plant. When purchasing a Goldenrod plant in the future, any of the varieties would be better than the straight species. Fireworks is a nice, open goldenrod. Wichita Mountains and Baby Blue would be good choices as well.

4. Is it too early to transplant hostas? When should you cut back warm season grasses?

A. Wait a couple of weeks to transplant the hostas until the soil has warmed up a little more. You can cut back the ornamental grasses anytime now. It is better to get the old growth cut off before growth resumes so you don’t cut off the new growth. For ease of cleanup with the ornamental grasses, wrap string or twine around the plant before cutting off the old materials so it stays together when taking to the compost pile.

5. A caller wanted to know how and when to prune roses?

A. Wait until a little later into April to start pruning them. It depends on the type of rose to know how to prune them. This sounds like a climbing rose which can be pruned back about 1/2 to reduce the size. Wait until they start greening up to know which areas of the canes have died back, the dieback should be removed as well. If the canes are long and lean over mowing areas or other things, they can be tied up to a trellis.

6. This caller wanted to know how to get rid of cockleburs?

A. While talking with the caller, it came up that the plant had very small yellow flowers on it and there were spines over the plant except right at the soil surface. This plant is in fact buffalobur, not cocklebur. These are easily pulled up if you pull where there are no spines. A 2,4-D product could also be used if there was a large amount of them in the lawn.

buffalobur, Howard F Schwartz, Colorado State Univ, Bugwood

Buffalobur plant from Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

7. A caller wanted to know if they should water in their crabgrass control?

A. The label will explain to you how a product should be applied for best efficacy. Always read and follow the label instructions to apply correctly. For many of the crabgrass preventers, they would need to be watered in, but again, check the label to be sure.

8. When should asparagus be fertilized?

A. Apply a general fertilizer or a composted manure to the bed after the last harvest or sometime in the fall.

9. This caller has mulberries growing in the windbreak. After they are cut down, what kind of stump treatment should be done to keep them from regrowing?

A. 2,4-D concentrate should be used as a stump treatment. This will take multiple applications and will be more effective if done in the fall. Each time the 2,4-D is reapplied it should be applied into newly drilled holes or to a freshly cut area of the stump.

10. A caller has cedars growing in their landscape. Under the cedars there is bare ground. What can they plant in that area to avoid weeds coming in?

A. The cedars are going to keep that area quite dark and the cedars will take the majority of the water in the soil so mulch would be a good alternative. If plants are desired, use a shade tolerant groundcover such as wintercreeper or vinca vine or perennial plants such as bleeding hearts, hostas, coral bells, jacob’s ladder, and others.

11. This caller has tiny cedar trees coming up throughout the lawn. How can they be controlled?

A. Cut them off at ground level. If a cedar is cut below any lateral growth it will not regrow. Mowing over them wouldn’t be low enough.

3-step pruning cut

Proper pruning cut, University of Missouri Extension

12. When is the best time to prune a maple tree that had a branch break in a storm?

A. As soon as the storm has passed and it is safe to do so, you should remove a branch that broke in the storm. If the damage occurred in a winter storm, let the ice and snow melt off first. Then, hire a certified arborist to come out and make a good pruning cut so that the tree can seal off the wound quickly and fully.

13. A caller has a hibiscus tree that is turning yellow and many of those yellow leaves are falling off the tree. It was moved indoors during the winter months in an area of the house with low sunlight. What is wrong with it and will it survive?

A. Hibiscus plants would need more sunlight than what it has received through the winter. It should be fine once it gets more sunlight. As the days get warmer, you can move it outdoors for more intense sunlight. It should be fine once it gets moved to better growing conditions.

14. This caller has a weeping willow tree that they would like to prune up a little. When can they prune it?

A. The weeping branches shouldn’t be pruned up too much or they could lose their weeping habit. Willows tend to have a heavy sap flow in the spring if they are pruned then, so it would be best to wait until later fall to prune a willow.

15. This caller has grasses that are coming up among the gravel paths around his daylily patch. What can he use to prevent those plants from coming up?

A. Preen is a great way to stop the germination of annual weeds, such as many of our weedy grass species. If they come up before the preen gets put down or if they grow as a perennial weed, you can use a post-emergent herbicide. If it is a grass that is growing out of place among daylilies, you can use Grass-B-Gon or a similar product to kill grasses.

henbit, steve dewey, Utah State Univ, Bugwood

Photo of henbit is from Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

16. What can be done to manage henbit?

A. At this time of the year, there is nothing very effective at controlling henbit. Henbit is a winter annual plant, meaning that it germinates in the fall and flowers and produces seed in the spring. It dies with the summer heat. As we are now seeing the purple flowers from henbit, there is no need to control what you are seeing. The seed is already present in the lawn for next year and what you would be spraying will die soon. You can hand pull it now and spray with a 2,4-D product late in the fall.

17. This caller has moon flowers that had a lot of hornworms on them last summer. What can be done this year to reduce the number of hornworms?

A. Just because there were hornworms there last year doesn’t necessarily mean you will have a lot this year. Hornworms are sporadic pests. They are easily controlled by hand removal. You can also use sevin or eight or any other general insecticide. Use Bt to protect other pollinators as Bt is only harmful to insects in the order Lepidoptera which includes butterflies and moths.

18. What do you do for bindweed in a vegetable garden?

A. If you haven’t planted yet this spring, you can roundup the plants before you prepare the soil for the summer vegetables. The plants will probably still be a problem later in the year as this is a difficult pest to control. When it comes back in the summer, you can carefully use roundup through the growing season. You can paint the glyphosate product onto the leaves of the bindweed avoiding spraying the desired plants.

Yard and Garden: May 13, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 13, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Fred Baxendale, Horticulture Entomology Specialist, UNL

1. The first caller of the day wanted to know when to transplant Peonies? She also wanted to know if she moved them away from the black walnut tree would that help them grow?

A. It is best to transplant peonies in the fall, but it can be done in the spring as well. It would be fine to move them in the spring as well. It would be beneficial for the plant to be moved away from the black walnut tree to get away from the toxicity produced by the tree as a form of natural weed control for the tree to other plants. Black walnuts produce Juglone which reduces growth and, in some cases, kills the other plants so the black walnuts have less competition for water and nutrients. Planting things 50 yards from the tree will get it out of the zone where damage can occur.

2. A caller has a rose that is old and has grown to 6 feet tall. When can he transplant it? Also, what are the red “ticks” he found around his gardens when he has been working in them recently?

A. Roses are hard to transplant. Do the transplanting in the early spring of the year and take as much of the rootball as can be dug up when it is moved to help the shrub overcome the transplant shock. Maintain adequate water once it is moved. The red “ticks” would be clover mites. These are not damaging to the plants but can leave red marks on house siding and if inside on the walls and curtains. You can treat these with permethrin or insecticidal soap.

3. This caller has Peonies that accidentally got cut back drastically this year. Will they live through this and should she do anything for them?

A. They should be fine but they probably won’t bloom this year. Make sure they are adequately watered and they will regrow by the end of fall. They should be fine again next year.

EAB Damage Collage

Signs of an Emerald Ash Borer Infestation from Boulder Colorado

4. A caller has 2 ash trees in her yard. She has heard about Emerald Ash Borer and wanted to know if there was anything she could do to protect her trees?

A. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has not been found in Nebraska and we recommend waiting until EAB has been found within 15 miles of your trees before you begin treating them. It takes 2-4 years for the damage to show up in our trees once it is here, so you will have time to treat them when it does get here. In the meantime, don’t move firewood here from other locations and increase the diversity in your landscape to help fill in holes that may appear when EAB takes out your ash trees. Also, watch your trees for signs of EAB including top dieback, suckering at the base of the tree, increased woodpecker damage, bark falling off, and D-shaped exit holes and alert Nebraska Extension if your trees exhibit any of these signs of damage.

5. This caller has a 10-year-old red maple that has struggled to leaf out the past couple of years. The middle of the tree is entirely void of leaves. Should he remove the center of the tree?

A. Removing the center will not fix the problem. This could be a root issue or it may have been improperly planted which would take around 10 years to show signs of damage. This tree is near the end of its life and removal of the entire tree should be contemplated. There could be borers in the tree but that would be a secondary issue and using an insecticide on them wouldn’t fix the whole problem with this tree.

6. This caller planted a Bradford Pear 2 years ago, it is leaning now. What can be done to correct the leaning?

A. Don’t stake the tree to try to pull it back to the correct position. When we stake a tree to try to pull it back upright, this can cause a girdling issue to the tree and it is very damaging to the tree. Because this tree has only been planted for 2 years, it would be a good idea to try to dig it up and reposition it.

7. A caller has steep hills around his yard and doesn’t want to have to mow it. What groundcover choices would he have to grow instead of grass?

A. Buffalograss, dwarf sumac, crown vetch, or potentilla would all be good choices for this type of growing environment.

8. A caller wanted to know if she could use vinegar for weed control in the flower garden?

A. It is best to use pesticides that are labeled for use in the garden. Pesticides for weed control have been rigorously researched to ensure that they work properly and cause limited harm to the environment if applied correctly. When we use non-gardening products in the garden, there isn’t always research to know how those products will work in the garden and it may cause more problems to our plants or it may cause problems if they get into stormwater. If you want to avoid pesticides, it would be better to use cultural and mechanical methods of weed control such as hand pulling and using mulch for weed control.

9. This lady has ant hills in her lawn, what can she use to control them?

A. Ant colonies would be spreading now. Leave them alone now, but if they start to overrun the lawn or come inside, you can spray them with permethrin or bifenthrin. If they are not taking over the lawn, they are a predator insect so if you don’t need to control them, they can be beneficial for other bad insect management.

10. This caller has a barberry that she wants removed. Should she call Diggers Hotline before digging it up? Also, how can she remove and kill daylilies growing in her landscape?

A. Always call Diggers Hotline before you do any type of digging. It is a free service that will help you before a problem occurs. As for the Daylilies, the best option is to dig them up. Using pesticides on them would need repeated applications over many years. When you dig them up, you can offer them to your friends and family.

11. How can you control bromegrass in flowers and in strawberries?

A. In the flower garden, you can spray a Grass-B-Gon product to control the grass and not harm the flowers. Do not spray this to where it hits your lawn or any ornamental grasses. As for the strawberries, this product is not labeled for use in strawberries or other edible crops, so mulching and hand pulling would be the best option. You can also paint Glyphosate (Roundup) products on the leaves of the grass among the strawberries and not harm the strawberries.

crane fly, David Cappaert, Bugwood

Crane Fly photo by David Cappaert, Bugwood.org

12. What are the giant mosquitoes this caller has been seeing flying around? What do they do? Are they mosquito killers?

A. These would be crane flies. They are not harmful to us. They feed on nectar when they are adults, but can sometimes be a problem in the turf. They are not mosquito killers, they are in the same order as mosquitoes and look like a large mosquito, but do not eat them. The immatures live in moist environments.

13. Would it be ok to spray a 2,4-D product this weekend?

A. Yes, 2,4-D can turn into a gas and spread to non-target plants if the temperatures for 72 hours after spraying is above 80 degrees Fahrenheit. So, with this cool down predicted where the temperatures will be in the 60’s for the weekend, this would be a great time to spray. Just make sure that the wind speeds are very low.

14. This caller has onions that the tops are dying back on. They tops curl up and die, why is that?

A. Onion thrips can cause streaking on leaves, this may be from onion thrips. Onion maggots will feed on developing bulbs as well. It could also be from a root rot issue. Dig up one of the onions that are not looking healthy and inspect the bulb for signs of insects or disease.

15. A caller has a recently planted black oak tree that has all of the leaves stripped off of it.

A. It could be from canker worms. They are a short-lived problem in our oak trees. Using the Eight product will help to control them.

16. This caller transplanted walking/winter onions. The bulbs are developing below ground and on top they are flowering but not developing the bulbs on top of the plant. What would cause that?

A. Try to fertilize the plant to help it with nutrients that may be missing from the growth of the plant.

Weather Effects on our Plants

2015-05-07 18.17.15

This year has been a bit unsteady regarding growing conditions for many plants. I have been getting a lot of questions regarding the death in many plants this spring and the lack of growth in many of our plants as well. I wanted to take this time to go over this issue with all of you.

This spring we have been seeing quite a bit of dieback on many different perennial plants and shrubs. Roses and spireas are suffering from what we call winterkill. Winterkill occurs commonly in the winter months when plants are exposed to cold, drying winds. The winterkill was extremely hard on these plants this year and has caused the tops of them to die. What we are seeing in our landscapes is plants that only have leaves at the bottom of the plant with no leaves and brittle branches at the top of the plant. Many other shrubs are experiencing the same problem. These dead branches can be pruned out of the plant. If the plant affected was a rose, it could have more problems if the dieback occurred below the graft union that many roses posses. If it died below the graft union, it should be replaced with a new rose.

2015-05-29 07.56.43

We are also seeing a great deal of loss in willow trees. Many willow trees, throughout the state, are dying entirely or losing the top or many branches throughout the tree. This is attributed to many years of tough growing conditions. In 2012 our plants faced severe drought and three weeks of temperatures in the 100’s. This is very hard on our plants and it takes 3-5 years of normal growing conditions for a plant to recover from a drought like this. This drought was followed by the winter of 2013-2014, which was very dry, cold, and windy. That winter caused many of our plants, especially arborvitae, to die due to the desiccation they faced. Finally, we have had a very uneven warm up this spring that followed a quick drop in temperatures last November, when temperatures fell to only 5 degrees Fahrenheit.

It is very hard on plants to go through so drastic extremes during their growing season and to have it hit them for multiple years at a time. This is the reason for so much death and dieback in so many different plants.

A lot of our plants are also very slow to warm up this spring. Butterfly bush, privet, hibiscus, and beauty bush have still not broken dormancy this spring. We at Nebraska Extension are suggesting waiting until the beginning of June before giving up entirely on these plants.

Many of our vegetable plants, if they have already been planted, may not be growing very well at this point. They are slow to grow well in this cool, cloudy weather. They will catch up when it warms up.

Keep an eye on all of your plants for diseases that are sure to be a problem with this weather. Leaf diseases and fruit diseases could be a problem this year as many are common in wet, cloudy weather. Watch leaves for leaf spots to remove those leaves as soon as you begin seeing a spot on them. When you need to water, be sure to water your plants from the bottom rather than overhead to reduce spreading these diseases.

Yard and Garden: April 24, 2015

Yard and Garden Green Logo

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 24, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Jeff Culbertson, Assistant Director of UNL Landscape Services

1. This caller wants to know why the water in her rain barrels is turning green and how to fix that problem?

A: The water should be used sooner from the rain barrels and not allowed to sit in it for very long periods of time. There is a great NebGuide on ‘Rainwater Harvesting with Rain Barrels‘. Algae can sometimes appear and can be reduced by:

  • Limit nutrient build-up in the barrel by reducing the amount of sediment and plant debris entering the barrel. These are sources of nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen that promote algae. Clean roof gutters at least annually. If hosing out the roof gutter, remove the rain barrel before cleaning. Consider installing gutter screens along with using screens/filters before the barrel inlet.
  • Clean the barrel at least once a year to remove sediment.
  • Use dark-colored, painted, or opaque barrels to limit light.
  • Place rain barrels in a shady location when possible.

2. This caller had a willow that is leafing out from the bottom without any growth at the top of the tree. Is this normal or what is wrong with the tree?

A: This could be due to dieback from the winter which is being seen throughout the landscape this year. It is still early in the season so the tree could come out of it, so give it time to see if it comes back. Scrape off some of the bark with your fingernail to see if underneath is brown or green. Green is healthy growing tissue, brown is not. If it seems to be dead later in the season, you can prune out some of the dead branches and the tree may still survive.

3. When is the best time to dig cedar trees from the pasture to transplant them into a windbreak?

A: Now would be a good time to do this. Make sure they are small trees and that they are protected from deer and rabbits in their new location. Keep them well watered.

4. What is a good rhubarb fertilizer?

A: 12-12-12 or 10-10-10 would be a good general fertilizer to use or manure in the fall.

5. This caller wanted to know if Ponderosa Pine was still a recommended tree due to the threat from Pine wilt?

A: Ponderosa Pine is only mildly affected by pine wilt. Very few ponderosa pines have been killed due to the disease. It is still on the list of trees from ReTree Nebraska. Watch these trees for tip and needle blight, 2 common needle diseases, that can be easily treated with fungicides.

6. A caller has 2 trees in her windbreak that were planted about 8 years prior to a storm that has caused them to lean now. It has been a couple of years since the storm, but the trees are still leaning. Can this lean be fixed?

A: They will grow straighter over time and eventually straighten up somewhat. If the lean is too much, they will not overcome that.

7. This caller has been gradually replacing a plum hedge with Lilacs. What can he do to prevent disease and insect problems in the lilacs?

A: After about 2-3 years of initial growth, begin annually removing the largest, woodiest stems from the lilac shrubs. This will help keep the shrubs with younger, better producing wood and it will help keep the borers and scale away from the plants. As for disease control, just be sure to space the lilacs properly. Most full sized lilacs will get 3-4 feet wide so space them about 4 feet apart to reduce the overlapping of the branches and leaves which can lead to more disease problems.

8. A caller has a large asparagus bed that wasn’t cleaned up last fall. What care can be done for the asparagus now and in the future?

A: It would be best to clean the asparagus up one time a year, either in the fall or late winter just before spring growth begins. To help reduce weeds after that, spray the weeds while they are green and the asparagus hasn’t emerged for the year yet in the spring. Fertilize the planting bed either in the spring with general purpose fertilizer or in the fall with manure or both times.

9. This caller has a rose bush on an old property and wants to know how to propagate it or transplant some of it to their home?

A: Remove and transplant any suckers on the plant will work on an older rose variety that wouldn’t have been grafted. Anytime now is a great time to transplant a rose bush.

10. This gentleman has French Dwarf Lilacs and he was told not to trim them out. Is this true?

A: These can be cut back or caned out annually to keep them smaller and to help them produce more flowers.

11. A caller had stumps from trees that were cut down last year. The stumps were treated with Tordon. Can he use the mulch they will make from the stumps in his landscape or would the Tordon still be in the wood chips?

A: Wood chips that were treated with Tordon could still have that pesticide residue in the wood chips. It should not be used around plants. Disclaimer: Tordon should NOT be used in a landscape setting, it is against label instructions. Always read and follow pesticide labels. Remember: The label is the Law.

2015-04-15 11.03.06

12. This gentleman had cedars with the tips of the branches turning brown this year. What is causing that and what should be done for it?

A: This could be winter kill as that is showing up in many juniper species this spring. It may also be Kabatina, a disease of junipers. The brown can be cut out of the trees at a branch crotch. The trees should live.

13. This caller was looking for a shade tree for her front yard that is fast growing, stays around 20 feet tall and possibly provides flowers or good color to the landscape.

A: Chanticleer or Cleveland Select Pear would be good for spring color. Crabapples can also grow to 20 feet tall and would provide a great deal of color and scent in the spring. Japanese Tree Lilac is another good choice for a smaller tree.

14. This caller is planting strawberries and raspberries. What kind of care would she need to provide them?

A: Here is a good guide from Sarah Browning on Summer Berries-Raspberry and Blackberry to guide you through the raspberries. Heritage is a good raspberry variety choice. This is a good guide from Lancaster County Extension on strawberry care called Growing Strawberries.

15. This caller has a pin oak tree that has iron deficiency. She has used the iron plugs on the trees but she is curious if there is another choice that will work better and for a longer period of time on the pin oaks?

A: This tree will continue to have problems once it starts to show signs from Iron Deficiency and it will eventually die from this nutrient problem. She can try to have a professional due trunk injections which will last longer each time, but this will have to be continued for the remainder of this trees life.

16. This caller wanted to know how to prepare cut lilac flowers to last longer indoors?

A: Cut the flowers before they have opened on the plant. Make a new cut on the stem and change the water daily. Use a preservative in the water. The preservative can be either a store bought product or make your own mixture by dissolving 4 heaping teaspoons of cane sugar and 2 tablespoons of white distilled vinegar in one quart of warm water.

17. This caller wanted to control the dandelions in his yard and not the clover. Can a chemical be used for this?

A: Using spot sprays of 2,4-D when the weather is calm and the temperatures are below 80 degrees Fahrenheit for the day of application and the 2 days following would help reduce damage to the clover. The other option would be to dig or hand pull the dandelions. The chemicals that would work for dandelion would also work to kill clover.

Happy Arbor Day! Plant a Tree!!

Image Courtesy of Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Image Courtesy of Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Yard and Garden: April 10, 2015

Yard and Garden Green Logo

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 10, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dick Campbell from Campbell’s Nursery in Lincoln, NE

1. The first caller wanted to know when to trim trees?

A: This depends on the type of tree to be trimmed. Oaks should not be pruned from April 1 through mid July to avoid susceptibility to Oak Wilt, a deadly disease that affects oak trees. Maples and birches will bleed sap excessively if pruned right not. This bleeding is not damaging to the tree, but it can be messy. Otherwise, it is good practice to prune deciduous trees during the dormant season so you can see through the trees to any crossing branches and air flow through the canopy.

2. This caller has a peach tree that produces too well. He wanted to know how to make the tree produce less fruit?

A: Fruit thinning should occur on fruit trees to help avoid branches breaking later in the season if they get too heavy due to fruit. The fruit on any fruit tree should be spaced 6-10 inches apart, leaving only one fruit on the branch every 6-10 inches. This will give you nice sized fruits that will not weigh down the branches.

3. A gentleman has ash trees that are loosing bark off the trunk. What would be causing this and how can it be fixed?

A: This could be caused by frost cracking. Frost cracks occur due to rapid temperature changes during the winter months. There is no cure for a frost crack and they may never heal over. Some trees may be able to close this wound, but if not it is an area where decay can enter the tree, as well as insects and diseases.

4. This caller uses ammonium sulfate on their lawn. Can this harm his lawn?

A: This can be harmful to the lawn, if the fertilizer is not spread uniformly throughout the lawn. If it gets concentrated too high in one are of the lawn, a burn can occur on the turfgrass. Otherwise, it will work fine as a quick release fertilizer.

5. Another caller has a steep slope in full sun in his lawn. What is a good perennial groundcover to use that does not have to be mowed?

A: Buffalograss is a good low management, perennial groundcover for full sun that wouldn’t have to be mowed. There are a lot of new varieties to choose from including, the newest from UNL, Sundancer Buffalograss that is darker green, has a denser canopy, and establishes faster. For more information on buffalograss care, see these UNL NebGuides: Establishing Buffalograss Turf in Nebraska and Management of Buffalograss Turf in Nebraska 

6. This caller had old Lilac bushes used as a hedge. She had cleaned them up and noticed there was a lot of dead branches and some new growth of branches. What should she do to clean them up and get them growing nicely again?

A: Prune out the dead canes, leave as much of the new, healthy growth as possible this year. Over the next few years, she can prune more of the larger, older canes out to bring it back to healthy growth. Don’t use a rejuvenation pruning with these lilacs because the older they are the harder it is for them to come back from such a drastic pruning. Watch out for borers and use systemic insecticides if holes are found at the base of the shrubs.

7. This caller had locust trees in the roadside. What should she do to get rid of them?

A: Cut the trees down and do a stump treatment with herbicides labeled for use on trees in a roadside.

8. A caller wanted to know what to do when planting new strawberry bushes and if they can be planted in containers? He also wanted to know what to do with shrub roses that grew taller than they should have, how much can he prune off of those roses?

A: Plant the strawberries to where the crown of the plant is just at the soil surface. Plant them 1 foot apart within the row and space the rows 4 feet apart. After planting you can use a pre-emergent herbicide on them to reduce weeds. Yes, they can be planted in a container, but that container will need to be protected through the winter months to get the strawberries to overwinter. As for the roses, you can cut those back to 6-8 inches tall rather than just taking a few inches off of the top. This will give you new growth that will produce more flowers throughout the entire shrub rather than some flowers just on the ends and sides.

 9. This caller had bagworms on his blue spruce in the past. He has now noticed that the top few feet of the spruce has died. Is this due to the bagworms? How can this be fixed?

A: This would be from a fungal disease called canker that is very common to spruce trees. From the point of the canker and anything above it, the tree will die and sap will flow from that canker location. There is no cure for canker, but the infected area of the tree can be removed to a location below the canker. It may regrow a new leader, but it may also continue to grow with a flat top. Bagworms can be treated with Bt, carbaryl, permethrin, or malathion around the third week of June or when the bagworms are immature and crawling around on the tree.

10. A caller wanted to know when to prune shrub roses? She also has a weeping white birch, when should this be fertilized?

A: Shrub roses can be pruned now. The weeping white birch should be fertilized just before they start to send sap up throughout the tree, which will begin soon. Watch all birch trees for borers, as this is a common pest in birches. Systemic insecticides, such as those containing imidacloprid, can be applied in the spring to help with borers in the tree.

11. This caller had apple trees that are 15 years old. When should they be sprayed for insects and diseases and what should they be sprayed with?

A: Orchard fruit tree sprays can be applied to all fruit trees. These have an insecticide and a fungicide to help with many problems that fruit trees face in Nebraska. This product should be applied at petal fall and every 10-14 days following. Be careful to not use insecticides on fruit trees while the flowers are blooming so no harm comes to the pollinators helping fruit development.

12. A gentleman wanted to know how to control Star of Bethlehem?

A: Spray with a combination product, such as Trimec. September 1st would be the prime time to do this so that the chemical will be taken into the bulb when the plant is taking nutrients into the bulb to help it get growing the following spring.

Spring Preparations for Lawn and Garden

2013-05-09 10.17.11

We have finally reached March, and the beginning of spring is right around the corner. We don’t want to get out and do too many things in our yards and gardens too early in the year, but there are some things to bring you out of cabin fever. Here is a listing of our usually spring activities and when the best time to do them would be.

We can now begin to start our seeds indoors for transplants into our gardens later in the spring. Remember, we want to wait until Mother’s Day to plant most of our vegetables outside, unless they are cool season crops. You should start things like broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and head lettuce indoors about 10 weeks prior to transplanting outside. Other plants such as tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants can be started indoors 6-7 weeks in advance of planting outdoors. Vegetables such as watermelons, cantaloupe, cucumbers, zucchini, squash, and beans should be planted from seed directly into the garden in May. Peas and other cool season vegetables can be planted in the middle to the end of March. The saying is that you can plant your peas and potatoes on St. Patrick’s Day, or some say Good Friday. Either day would be fine to plant your peas and potatoes from the middle to the end of March.

2014-03-04 11.18.22

Roses can also be pruned back at this time of the year. The best time to prune roses is February to March or in early spring. When you prune your roses, start by removing all the dead, diseased, or damaged branches.   If it is a dead or diseased branch, cut back at least one inch below the dead area and above a live bud. If there are no live buds, cut the entire cane out. After that, you should prune up to one-third of the older branches and canes.

Other types of shrubs can be pruned next month, in April. Things such as honeysuckle, ninebark, barberry, and burning bush should be pruned in the early spring. To prune these types of shrubs, we should cut out the older canes and ones that are dead. As with roses, we need to make sure that we are only cutting out one third of the plant. If it is a plant that blooms in the spring, such as forsythia, lilac and spring-blooming spirea, we should wait to prune it until just after it has flowered.

Turf can be overseeded or reseeded from the end of March through the beginning of April. Be sure that you are buying certified weed free seed. The best grass choices for eastern Nebraska are either 100% tall fescue, 90% tall fescue with 10% Kentucky bluegrass, 100% Kentucky bluegrass, or 100% buffalograss. Mixes are alright to use in Nebraska, but you want to make sure it is a good mix. If you purchase a mix, avoid any that contain annual bluegrass, ‘Linn’ perennial ryegrass, or ‘Kenblue’ Kentucky bluegrass. After you have mowed one time on the new seed, you can then put your crabgrass pre-emergent herbicide down to control crabgrass for the year. Wait to use 2,4-D products on your newly seeded lawn areas until after you have mowed at least three times on the new turf.

 

Care of Valentine’s Day Gifts

Bouquet

Valentine’s Day will be here before we know it, have you bought your loved one some flowers or maybe a houseplant to show them you love them.  Valentines’ Day is one of the biggest horticultural holidays that we have.  Personally, I like any holiday that gives anyone a reason to purchase or receive flowers.  For Valentine’s Day, many florists offer the option of either cut flowers or potted plants and houseplants.

Cut flowers are beautiful, especially roses on Valentine’s Day.  They smell so wonderful and they can really brighten a day.  Roses are a great choice for this holiday, as they are the staple for the day.  The great thing about roses is that they come in many different colors to suit each person’s unique tastes.  There are a lot of other great cut flowers to choose from for this holiday, or any day you want to tell someone you love them or you are thinking about them.  Other great cut flower choices include: carnation, daisy, snapdragon, lily, mum and many more.  Any of these would be a great choice, just pick something you or the recipient likes.  The best way to decide on flowers is to go into a shop and pick them out yourself, you can also browse a large selection online but you don’t get to “stop and smell the roses” in that case.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Care of cut flowers is important to make them last longer.

  • Purchase fresh flowers
  • Gift them soon after purchase
  • Re-cut the stems at an angle with a clean, sharp knife
    • It allows them to draw water in for lasting, full blooms
  • Remove any leaves that might fall below the water line
    • Leaves in the water line will deteriorate and cause bacteria to get into the water and eventually the flowers.
  • Do not use ice-cold water
    • Use lukewarm water for best absorption by the flowers.
  • Use a clean vase
  • Change the water daily
  • Use the flower preservative that comes with the bouquet
  • Do NOT placed in full sunlight or in drafty rooms or near the door

If you want to keep the flowers even longer, you can dry them. Begin the drying process before the flowers begin to wilt by hanging them upside down for a few weeks.  I always tie some string around the bouquet then use a clothespin to hang them on curtains.  Dried flowers do lose color in the process, but still look nice.  If the flowers are hanging where they lie flat against a wall or other object, they will dry with a flat side, so be sure to check to make sure they are away from other objects.

Houseplant

Photo by S. Cochran, UNL Extension in Lancaster County

For a houseplant or potted plant, there are many choices.  Orchid, Bromeliad, Kalanchoe, Gerber Daisy, Amaryllis, and Cyclamen are good choices with flowers.  You can also choose the greenery type, with little flower appearances including: philodendron, aloe, Mother-in-Law’s tongue, coleus, and ficus.  During the summer these can be placed outside to add to your landscape, but you don’t want to leave them outside during the winter, as they will not overwinter.  If you do place any houseplants outside during the summer, before you bring them inside look for or treat any pests that may have gotten on the plants while outside.  Each plant is going to have different care instructions such as light and watering instructions.  Follow the labels given in the plants for care, or if you have questions about the care of a particular plant, call your local Extension Office for these answers.