Yard and Garden: June 22, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 22, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Kathleen Cue, Dodge County Extension Educator

1. The first caller of the day has cauliflower that is turning purple in the garden. What is causing this and can it still be eaten?

A. This is a response to the heat. For next year, blanche the heads just after they begin to form by tying the large leaves up around the cauliflower heads to protect them from the sun or purchase self-blanching varieties. This cauliflower can still be eaten even though it has turned purple.

2. When is the best time to move asparagus?

A. Spring would be the best time for planting asparagus. It is more beneficial to just start a new asparagus patch rather than transplanting. It would be difficult to get all of the plant and there are a lot of newer varieties that will do better with heat and other conditions. If you transplant what you already have growing, it is still best to wait 3 years before heavy harvest again, so it would be beneficial to start over since this asparagus bed is already 20 years old.

3. A caller has nutsedge in their lawn, how can it be controlled? Roundup didn’t seem to work for it.

A. Roundup would not be effective in this situation because roundup is for grass control, while nutsedge is a sedge. For best control of nutsedge, it is best to use either Sedgehammer or Tenacity. Both of these chemicals should be effective, but they should be applied prior to the first day of summer to reduce the population for next year. Also, nutsedge tends to grow in areas of the lawn where the soil is compacted or water tends to sit, reduce the compaction and get the turf growing better to control the sedge better.

Yellow Nutsedge-Howard F. Schwartz, Co. State Univ, Bugwood
Nutsedge photo by Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

4. This caller has a few walnut trees that the tops look good, but near the base of the trunk the tree is losing bark. He recently added some soil and river rock around the trees. Will the trees survive?

A. When adding soil and rock around a tree that had been planted for a while, it changed the grade around the trees. This can lead to many problems with the tree because it makes the tree too deep in the soil, especially after the roots were at a higher level in the soil for multiple years. This will lead to the death of these trees. The bark could be coming off because of the death beginning in the tree or it could be due to possible damage to the roots when the soil and rock was moved in. Either way, the trees will die. Enjoy them until they do or until they become a hazard to homes, cars, or people found underneath them.

5. What would be a good replacement tree for scotch and Austrian pines?

A. Diversity is a good thing to remember when planting a new trees. Diversity includes species and age of trees. This caller has a great deal of trees to replace in a CRP, it is advised to not replace all of these trees at the same time so they have a diversity of age as well. Good choices include Douglas fir, concolor fir, hemlock, eastern red cedar, blue spruce, black hills spruce, Norway spruce, and Ponderosa pines.

6. A caller has a windbreak with bagworms. Is it too late to spray this year? What should he spray with?

A. We should be ok in the window to spray for bagworms. It is best to spray after the bagworms have germinated for the year until when the bags have developed over 1 inch in length. Once the bags are larger than 1 inch long, the chemicals will not be very effective. Tempo or Bt products would be the best choices for control of bagworms, but most any general insecticide will work.

Bagworm4
Bagworm

7. This caller has a 20-year-old red maple that only has leaves on the west side to cover only 1/4 of the tree. What is wrong with the tree?

A. When that much of the tree has died back, it will not recover. It should be removed to reduce the hazards that will appear from a dead tree.

8. A caller has a newly planted blue spruce. How long should they maintain watering the tree? Should it continue through the winter months?

A. Newly planted trees should be watered throughout the growing season, and even during the winter. If we don’t have a lot of snow cover through the winter months, it is important to water an evergreen tree about once a month on a warmer day. When watering in the winter, water in the early to mid-day to allow all of the water to soak into the soil rather than freeze up on top. It would be best to continue watering this tree at least for 3-5 years on a regular basis. However, even a 30-year-old tree needs to be watered some in years of drought. It would be best to always continue to water this tree, even if only sporadically.

9. This caller wondered if adding drain tiles when adding a raised bed around an established tree would help it to survive with this practice that is not recommended?

A. Adding a raised bed to an existing tree is not an issue with drainage. Adding more soil to where a tree is already living can decrease the amount of oxygen that the roots are able to get which can then kill the tree. Also, adding this soil make it so that the trunk of the tree is underground which can decay the trunk and lead to crown rot or other bad conditions that also lead to death of the tree.

10. A caller has a pin oak that the roots are starting to pop out of the soil around it. What can be done for it?

A. Wood-chip mulch can be used to cover up the roots as they show up out of the soil. Do not add soil or increase the soil level. Avoid rock mulch as it can be too hot for the plant. Adding a mulch over the roots will prevent you from mowing over the roots and injuring them. Plants can be planted among the roots as well, but don’t add soil to do that.

11. Is it too late to prune lilacs?

A. Lilacs will begin producing flower buds for next spring shortly after they finish flowering this year. They should be pruned within a couple of weeks after blooming has finished in the spring. They can be pruned this late, but it will reduce the flower production for next year.

12. This caller has lilacs that have never been pruned for many years. How, when, and how much can she prune now?

A. A rejuvenation pruning may be beneficial for this situation. Older lilacs, if never pruned, have unproductive wood. This will lead to less leaf production, less flowering, and often much of the leaf and flower production will be just at the top 1/3 of the plant. When this happens, it is best to just prune the lilac off 6-8 inches above the ground to allow it to regrow with younger, more productive wood to produce more leaves and flowers throughout the whole plant. Rejuvenation pruning should be done just after flowering or in the fall for best health of the plant.

13. The last caller of the day wants to know about planting and growing blueberries and currants in Nebraska. He has pots he wants to plant them in to plant the pot into the ground. Is that necessary? What type of soil should be used?

A. Blueberries are not the best option for Nebraska soils. They must live in highly acidic soils, which we do not have. If determined to grow blueberries in Nebraska, it is best to grow them in a pot in the ground that can be brought up every year to amend the soil with acidic fertilizer or peat moss. Serviceberries may be a better choice to blueberries for Nebraska. Serviceberry is a native plant so it will grow in our natural soils with a lot less care and they have more antioxidants than blueberries do. There are also some newer varieties that have berries larger than blueberries. Currants will grow just fine in our natural soils and need no ammendments.

Yard and Garden: July 3, 2015

Yard and Garden Green LogoThis is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for July 3, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Julie Albrecht, Professor in Health and Nutrition Sciences at UNL

1. A caller had a Bradford Pear tree with brown limbs on approximately 1/4 of the tree. What would be causing that?

A: This is probably due to fireblight which has been very common in many of our fruit trees this year, including pear and crabapple. If that is the case, prune out the infected limbs by cutting 6-8 inches behind the change in color on the branch from brown to black. Dip pruners into bleach water between each cut to reduce the spread of the disease through the tree.

2. The first caller also has moles in her yard, how can she control them?

A: Moles can be controlled by trapping. Find an active run by tapping the mounds down a few times prior to placing the trap in the run. If the mound returns each time it is knocked back into the hole, it is active and the mole will come back after the trap is set. For more information see the Moles publication from the Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management.

3. A caller has a pond that has a lot of moss. How can this be controlled?

A: Copper Sulfate Crystals will work best on algae/moss. It is best if it is applied when the growth first becomes visible.

Photo by Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
Nutsedge Photo by Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

4. A gentleman wanted to know how to control nutsedge?

A: The best control for nutsedge is Sedgehammer, a product that is specific to sedges. It needs to be reapplied throughout the growing season to small plantings before they produce new nutlets that will produce more plants.

5. A gentleman has an ash tree that has many shriveled leaves with insects on the underside of the leaves. What can he do to control these insects?

A: These are probably lacebugs or aphids. Use a general insecticide such as sevin, eight, or malathion to control these insects on the ash tree. Lacebugs and aphids suck the juices out of the tree which will cause discoloration and curling leaves.

6. A lady has tomatoes that are curling and shriveling, she didn’t notice any insects or spots on the leaves. What would be causing this?

A: This could be possibly a virus or 2,4-D drift. If it is herbicide drift, the plants will grow out of it eventually and the new growth should be normal. If it is a virus there is no cure and the plant will continue to grow abnormally.

7. A lady has a mandevilla plant that has leaves that are turning yellow with spots. What would cause this problem?

A: This could be due to environmental factors such as high moisture early in the growing season or due to a fungal leaf spot. Ensure that the plant is getting the correct amount of moisture at all times. Use a fungicide on the plant to help with a fungal disease, Daconil is a good choice for fungicide.

8. A gentleman is curious about vegetable preservation techniques. Do you have to blanch all vegetables that you will be freezing and will you lose nutrients when you blanch these vegetables?

A: Blanching is necessary for all vegetables to stop growth and stop enzyme production that can cause the vegetables to lose flavor. Blanching also helps maintain the freshness and color in your vegetables. Blanching only needs to be done for a very short period of time, followed by plunging the produce into ice water to stop the cooking process. After it is drained, the vegetables can be put into freezer bags for freezing. For more information regarding food preservation, visit the National Center for Home Food Preservation for the safest recommended procedures for food preservation.

9. A lady has some trees that have been planted in the past couple of years and now it looks as if something has come and eat the top off of the trees. Now there is suckering at the base of the plant. What would have chewed on these trees and can those suckers be used to grow a new tree?

A: Deer is likely the culprit for chewing off the trees. The best control for deer would be to add some type of fencing to exclude deer from the trees. The suckers are coming up at the base of the plant because the top has likely died back which forced the trees to produce suckers for new growth. The suckers may be weak or not grow straight, but with additional help a new tree may be able to regrow from the suckers. It might be best for new trees to be planted for best growth and strongest trees.

10. A caller dug out their pond and moved some of the soil to a garden spot. The vegetables growing there are growing but have no fruits on them. What would cause this?

A: This is likely due to high nitrogen that came from the soil at the bottom of the lake. Nitrogen is a nutrient that will cause green leafy growth that can sometimes suppress vegetable production. I would suggest a soil test to determine what to do with the garden to help production improve.

Roseslug Collage
Photo on the left of the roseslug on the underside of the leaf, Photo on the right of the damage from roseslugs

11. A caller has roseslugs on his roses. They have destroyed about 80% of the leaves on the plant. What can be done about this?

A: If a roseslug population is low, control is not necessary. However, this sounds excessive so a controlling spray with a general insecticide such as Eight will work for these roseslugs. Be careful to not spray the rose flowers to reduce impact on pollinator insects.

12. When is the best time to transplant Iris’?

A: Fall is the best time for transplanting Iris and Peonies. Transplanting now would be difficult because when they get moved they have limited roots and in the hot, dry part of the summer it would be hard to keep the plants hydrated enough to keep it alive.

13. A caller has cherry trees that have much of the cherry crop as rotten fruits hanging on the trees. What would cause this?

A: This is brown rot, it is a fungal disease that is common in cherry trees this year due to the wet spring. There is no control for it at this time. Fungicides should be applied early in the spring to prevent this disease.

14. A caller has a cherry tree that one side of it has died. What has caused this problem? He did have some damage occur to the trees a few years ago due to cattle foraging through the area.

A: The cattle likely injured the bark of the tree causing it to get a canker on the trunk. The canker would cause a disruption in the flow of water and nutrients throughout the tree. There is no cure for the canker. He can try to prune out the dead branches and see if it will come out of it in the next couple of years.