Yard and Garden: May 17, 2019

Yard & Garden blog, 2019

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 17, 2019. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 2, 2019. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Kathleen Cue, Dodge County Extension Educator

1. The first caller of the show has a bur oak and a pin oak that have both been very slow to green up this spring and now have turned brown. Is there something wrong with the trees?

A. The browning of those trees is most likely due to the formation of catkins, which are the flower structures of the oak trees. Those turn brown when they mature then will fall from the tree. It may look bad, but it is normal for the tree. They are slow to green up this year due to the cooler spring we have had, they will be fine.

2. A caller has a fishing pond that now has a layer of moss on the edge. He sprayed it with copper sulfate in mid-April and that seems to have not worked for this. What can he do to control it?

A. Copper sulfate is a recommended product for controlling this type of algae on a pond. It can be used when growth first becomes visible. Be careful applying too much of this in one season because it can cause a fish kill if sprayed in too high of a dose. However, when this caller sprayed, it may not have been actively growing so the copper sulfate would not be as effective. A second application could be applied now that it is actively growing. Another way to control this would be to use a rake to pull the majority of this algae out of the pond without having to reapply the chemicals and not risking any problems with the fish.

3. This caller has miniature Iris’ that are now done blooming but they need thinned and divided. Can this transplanting be done now?

A. Yes, it would be fine to divide and transplant these Iris’ now. It would be best to cut off the seed heads prior to dividing so the plants put energy into producing roots not into seed development. Be sure to keep the ground evenly moist after this because the plants will not have a good root system in place, but don’t overwater.

4. A caller was gifted some spring-blooming bulbs that were purchased last fall. Can they be planted now?

A. It is best to plant spring-blooming bulbs in the fall. They could be stored over the summer in paper bags with peat moss in a cool, dark location such as a basement and then they can be planted in the fall like normal. However, because they were purchased last fall, it would be best to plant them now to let the roots grow over the summer months. There is not a guarantee that the bulbs will survive with either of these methods, but they will likely dry out if left out of the ground for a year.

5. This caller has pine trees that died due to pine wilt. He now has volunteer scotch pines coming up in the pasture, will they be immune or resistant to the disease?

A. No, all scotch pines will be subject to the disease, they will not become resistant. Volunteer scotch pines can survive for about 10 years before the disease affects them.

6. A caller has Iris’ that look good and are starting to bloom, but all of a sudden all of the leaves have spots on them. What is it and what can she do to manage it?

A. This is most likely from Iris Leaf Spot, a fungal disease. This is best controlled through sanitation such as removing infected leaves and cleaning up all of the leaf litter in the fall to remove the overwintering site. Also, be sure to water from below the plant rather than over the foliage. If the plants have grown together, it would be best to space the plants out more by dividing and replanting. Fungicides can be used when these practices are not working. Copper fungicides would be best.

7. This caller has a sunset maple that is about 25 feet tall and one half of the tree turns red earlier in the season in the fall while the rest of the tree stays green. Now that side of the tree that turns red first has very heavy seeds and isn’t looking very healthy. What, if anything, can be done for this tree?

A. Stress will cause a tree or even a portion of a tree to go into early fall color. Stress is also one of the reasons that we are seeing the heavy seed production this year in maple trees. During the discussion, it turns out that there is a stress fracture and included bark on the trunk due to co-dominant branches. In this area, there is likely decay and that is problematic on the tree. There is no good way to fix this on the tree now that it is so large. One half of the tree could be pruned off to reduce the damage from the included bark and co-dominant branching. It would take a long time for the tree to recover from this and it will look a little odd while it is recovering from this pruning.

8. A caller reseeded their lawn last fall. It was planted so it got hit by frost and did not survive. Can he spray his lawn and reseed now?

A. The weeds can be sprayed now, but it is a little late now to overseed for this spring. The fall seeding was a little too late and with the early snow we had in October, the grass was not able to survive at such a young state of growth. A similar situation would happen if seeding now, but with heat instead of cold. It would be best to overseed in late August to early September to ensure good growth before frost. For now, he could cover the ground with an annual ryegrass to keep the weeds down. When he does overseed in the fall, he can use a mesotrione product such as tenacity at seeding without harming the seed and killing off the weeds.

9. Can daylilies be planted on the south side of the garage or will it be too hot for them there?

A. Daylilies can be planted in full sun on the south side of a building and they will thrive in that location. They are tough plants. It would not be too hot for them there.

10. This caller has small holes around his sweet corn. Sometimes the seed is gone and sometimes the new plants are cut off at the ground level. What would cause this?

A. This could be from a couple of things. The plants being cut off at the ground level could be from cutworms. Cutworms can be controlled with sevin sprayed or dust sprinkled around the base of the plants. It could also be from voles or even turkeys. If voles, a snap mouse trap can be used in the runs or around the plants where they are seen. If turkeys, there isn’t a good control for them. The problem shouldn’t last the whole season.

knotweed, kim starr, starr environmental, bugwood
Prostrate Knotweed photo by Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org

11. Finally, a listener texted a picture of a lawn weed to the radio station and wanted to know what it is and how it can be controlled?

A. This is knotweed. It can be controlled with a 2,4-D product.

 

Spring Yard Clean Up

lawnmower-pixabay
Image by Rudy and Peter Skitterians from Pixabay

Now that spring is officially here, we can really start to think about outdoor activities. Don’t get ahead of the weather though, that could cause more harm than good or cause us to have to do more work later. But now that spring is here, I thought I would help you with your to do list and when to do those things.

Lawncare

This is the time of the year when we start to see green in our lawns again. We begin to think it is time to fertilize, overseed, and use crabgrass control. Don’t get started on your lawn too early. It has been quite cold this winter and even this spring. If you get too ahead of the weather it can cause some plants to develop freeze damage or die. Overseeding can be done in April, but anytime by the end of April to the early part of May is still fine for overseeding. I would suggest waiting until at least the middle of April this year. According to Purdue University, the optimum air temperature for germination of Kentucky bluegrass seed is 59-86 degrees, for Tall fescue it is 68-86 degrees. So we can wait until it warms up more consistently before overseeding the lawn.

Fertilizer also can be left until later in the spring before it is applied. You can apply a fertilizer application as needed in mid to late April. Wait to see how the lawn greens up to determine if a spring application is necessary. If a lawn has a medium green hue in late April, skip the typical Arbor Day application in favor of one in late May to early June.

It’s also a good time to clean the lawn from winter debris. Branches and leaves may have fallen during the winter, now’s the time to rake these up and remove them before mowing begins. It’s also be a good idea to clean pet waste from your lawns. Pet waste tends to build up over winter and can become a pollutant in water when it runs off your lawn and into storm drains.

Crabgrass Control

fertilizer spreaderDon’t get started with crabgrass control too soon this spring. The soil temperatures are still in the low 40 degree range. Crabgrass preventer should not be applied until the soil temperature is consistently at 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit. Even if a few early warm days cause crabgrass to germinate, if these days are followed by freezing temperatures, any crabgrass that germinated will die from cold temperatures. If you apply crabgrass preventer too early in the spring, it will break down too early causing more crabgrass to germinate later in the year.

Spring vegetable gardens

Vegetable gardens can be worked in the spring as soon as the ground is dry and workable. Cool season crops such as peas, potatoes, carrots, raddish, kohlrabi, lettuce, and spinach can be planted now. Asparagus beds can be cleaned up now and new asparagus patches can be started. Make sure that the soil is dry before you work the garden or plant any vegetables. Planting into mud can compact the soil and disrupt the growth of plants.

Wait to plant warm season crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplant, and beans until Mother’s Day, or until after our average frost free date, which is the end of April for the Beatrice area.

Cleaning up perennials

If you didn’t clean your perennial beds last fall, wait until mid-April before you begin cleaning them this spring. Those plants have been protected from the plant debris from last year’s growth, removing that now would expose the crowns and could kill the plant if cold temperatures return. You can begin to refresh your mulch anytime now. Apply 2-3 inches of mulch around your flower beds to protect them from weed competition and to keep the roots at a uniform temperature with added moisture.

 

 

 

 

Brown Lawns caused by a leaf blight

Ascochyta, 6-2018
Symptoms from Ascochyta Leaf Blight

This year has been difficult for our lawns. Since our cold April, our temperatures skyrocketed and we haven’t had many rain events throughout this spring and early summer. This has been causing our lawns to look a little ragged and brown.

Ascochyta

Many cool season lawns throughout Eastern Nebraska have begun to look brown due to Ascochyta leaf blight, a widespread disease found throughout the early part of summer this year. Mowing during the hot Memorial Day weekend seemed to have worsened the symptoms of this disease.

Symptoms

Ascochyta close up, 6-2018
A close-up of the blades of turf infected by Ascochyta

Ascochyta is a diseased that is stress-induced and often shows up in the early summer when the weather shifts from cold and wet to hot and very dry. Ascochyta is a dieback from the tip of the leaf blades of cool season turf. Red-brown spots can also appear lower down on the affected blades. You might also notice a dark brown/black band between green growth and the brown tip of the blade. After the initial disease moves through, a general brown appearance will show up in the lawn, often following lawn mower tire patterns. Mowing worsened the symptoms of this disease, not by spreading it, but by the physical traffic of the equipment  to weaken the turf. This allowed for ease of the fungus to attack the lawn.

Ascochyta affects just the turf blades of the plant, not the roots or crown of the plants. The crown is the growing point of the turf. Because it doesn’t affect the roots and crown of the plant, it is then able to grow out of the disease. Mowing the lawn will remove the infested areas of the plant which will lead to regrowth and regreening of the lawn over time.

Management

There are a few types of fungicides labeled for use on ascochyta, however, research at UNL shows poor results with many different classes of fungicides on this disease. The best management for Ascochyta would be to reduce stress and manage the lawn properly. Provide adequate moisture for the lawn. Remember it is best to provide 1-1.5 inches of water per week to the lawn. If that isn’t provided through rainfall, irrigate two to three times per week with 1/3-1/2 an inch each time to keep the lawn healthy. Also, ensure that your lawn mower blades are sharp to avoid tattering the leaves which can leave more of an opening for diseases to move into grass plants. Finally, early June is a great time for a slow-release fertilizer to help slowly feed your lawn through the summer months and keep it healthy.

For More Information

The information for this news article on Ascochyta came from the UNL Turfgrass Team of Bill Kreuser and Roch Gaussoin. This information came through a Turf iNfo update. You can sign up to be on their listserv to receive these updates automatically as they come out by going to the Nebraska Turfgrass Website and scrolling down to click on the ‘SIGN UP FOR TURF INFO’ tab at the bottom of their page.

 

Crabgrass

crabgrass, Joseph Berger, Bugwood
Crabgrass photo, courtesy of Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org

This time of the year is always full of activities to do outside. It is a great time to get outside in the comfortable weather. Lawncare is always at the top of our spring outdoor ‘to do’ list, and crabgrass is number one on the concerns.

Crabgrass Basics

Crabgrass is a summer annual grassy weed that takes advantage of thin areas in our lawns to become established. As a summer annual weed, crabgrass germinates in the spring and, if not controlled, new plants continue to germinate throughout the summer. Each plant grows for one summer, then dies with the first hard frost in the fall. New crabgrass that you see in your lawn each year is from seed that was set the previous year by the crabgrass growing before.

Crabgrass is a problem in our lawns. Each plant will compete with our desirable grass species. Once crabgrass gets into a lawn, it will compete with our grass for water, sunlight and growing space. Plants produce a large amount of seed that will germinate the following year, creating an ongoing problem on your lawn.

Prevention

Crabgrass is difficult to eradicate once it becomes established, so it is better to prevent this weed from becoming established in the first place. Crabgrass preemergent herbicides are used to inhibit the growth of young seedlings, destroying them before they can emerge from the soil. Which is why many people prefer to use a preemergent herbicide to control the crabgrass in their lawn.

Preemergent herbicides should be applied before crabgrass has started to germinate, which happens when soil temperature has reached 55-60 degrees F, measured at 4-inch soil depth, for at least four days. This is not based on a date range, because soil temperatures differ from year to year. It is based on the weather conditions for that year. We have reached that point now this year.

It is not beneficial to apply the preemergent too early in the year. Once applied products begin to degrade and breakdown. If your application is made too early, before crabgrass germination has started, you are wasting your product and monty because you will have a shortened period of control once crabgrass does start germination.

Plan on making two applications of preemergent to give season-long crabgrass control. Purchase enough product in spring for two applications; garden centers often run out of preemergent products by the end of spring so it could be hard to find later in summer. Each product has a slightly different length of residual action, so follow the product’s label directions on when the second application should be made.

Controlling Existing Plants

Post-emergent herbicides can be used to control crabgrass that has emerged in your lawn. Products containing Mesotrione, commonly found in the product called Tenacity, works as both a pre- and post- emergent herbicide on grasses and broadleaf weeds. It can also be used at seeding if you have a history of crabgrass problems and need to overseed.

The other commonly used post-emergent herbicide for controlling crabgrass would be products that contain Quinclorac, commonly found in the product called Drive.

If crabgrass does appear in your lawn, you can reduce future problems by keeping plants mowed short enough that they don’t produce seedheads. Then at least there won’t be additional seed in the soil to increase your problem next year.

What to do in the Spring?

Spring Things Blog Post

Spring is here. That is wonderful for the weather and the desired plants and flowers, but it also means the insects and weeds are coming back. If you know what you are dealing with, management is achievable.  

Henbit

Henbit is one of those not so desirable weeds that shows up in our lawns in the spring. We don’t really notice it until it begins to bloom and at that point, it is too late for control. Henbit is the early spring weed that blooms purple along the edges of our sidewalks and driveways.

henbit, steve dewey, Utah State Univ, Bugwood
Photo of Henbit from Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

Henbit is a winter annual. This means that henbit only lives for one growing season, but it’s development is different from something like crabgrass which is a summer annual. A winter annual is a plant that germinates in the fall and grows a bit before basically becoming dormant for the winter months. Very early in the spring, henbit will start to grow again, produce flowers and seed for the next year then it will die when the temperatures warm up. This is different from a summer annual which germinates in the spring and goes through its lifecycle through the summer months and dies with our fall frosts.

The problem with henbit is that by the time we see it, or rather see the purple flowers, it is too late to treat for the year. Once the flowers begin to show up, it is already producing seed for next year, so killing blooming henbit is unnecessary because it will die naturally and the chemicals won’t reduce production for next year. However, pulling the plant would be a fine management practice after blooming has begun. It can be sprayed with a 2,4-D product very early in the spring once it has greened up but before it blooms. If you know where it is you can spray it before it blooms. Otherwise, wait until this fall to spray those areas with a pre-emergent herbicide before it germinates in the fall.

Lawncare

This is the time of the year when we want to start seeing color in our lawns. We begin to think we need to fertilize, overseed, and use crabgrass control. Don’t get ahead of the weather with these things. It is still fairly early for overseeding, it can be done in April, but anytime by the end of April to the early part of May is still fine for overseeding. Overseeding too early could cause the seed to germinate in warmer weather. If that warm weather is followed by freezing temperatures, it could damage the newly emerged grass. Fertilization should not be applied until mid to late April when temperatures warm up more consistently.

Crabgrass preventer should not be applied too early in the year either or it will break down before the crabgrass begins to emerge. Crabgrass preventer should be applied when the soils are consistently at 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit. A split application, applying more 6-8 weeks after the first application will ensure crabgrass control through the season.

Asparagus

green-asparagus-pixabayAsparagus is a great vegetable that many people enjoy growing and eating. Now is the time to clean up your asparagus beds if you haven’t done so already. It is a good practice to allow asparagus fronds to stand through the winter to help trap snow during the winter months, providing moisture for the crown of the plant as the snow melts.

If you are planting a new asparagus bed, dig a trench 6-8 inches deep and plant the crowns in that, only covering with a couple of inches of soil. As the plants grow up through the soil, continue to add a couple of inches of soil at a time until the soil in the trench is level with the surrounding soil. Wait for 3 years before you begin harvesting to allow the roots to get fully established.

Salt is not a recommended weed control for asparagus. Asparagus is a salt tolerant plant, but it doesn’t thrive in salty soil environments. Also, the salt in the soil can begin to break down the surrounding soil, leaving you with bad soil for the asparagus and other plants growing nearby. For weed control, it is best to use mulch throughout the season.

Yard and Garden: April 14, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 14, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: George Pinkerton, Director of Landscape Maintenance at Downtown Lincoln

1. The first question came from a caller wondering what the timing is for crabgrass preventer?

A: Typically we go with mid-to late April for application of crabgrass preventer. Crabgrass germinates when soil temperatures reach 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit. In most of the Southeast Nebraska area, we have just recently hit that. Anytime in the next couple of weeks would be fine to apply your crabgrass preventer. It might be best for control to apply a split application this year. For a split application, apply half of the recommended rate now and the other half of the recommended rate 8-10 weeks later. The split application will give you a longer season of control for crabgrass and other annual grassy weeds.

2. A caller was wondering about their gladiolus bulbs. They have had problems with thrips insects in the past and they had heard they should soak their bulbs in lysol to control them. Is this a good method of control or is there something better?

A: As it turns out, you can soak the corms in a solution of lysol water prior to storage of the corms over the winter months, according to the University of Minnesota Extension. You can also dust the corms with a sevin dust prior to storage in the late fall, store them with mothballs, or store them at colder temperatures such as 35-40 degrees F as well. If you are looking for control at this time, it would be best to spray the plants as you see the streaking damage beginning from the thrips feeding in the spring and summer months. You can use any general insecticide for this.

3. This caller has a sugar maple that was hit with hail 5 years ago and now has a great deal of damage to the trunk of the tree. They have sprayed the trunk with a sealant and used a wrap. Will the tree survive or should it be removed now?

A: At this point, I would observe the tree to watch for signs of death occurring through the tree. The damage that is there cannot be fixed now that it has occurred. If you don’t like the look of the damage you can remove and replace the tree or you can wait until it starts to dieback. It is hard to say how long the tree will live now that the damage has occurred.

2012-05-25 12.04.38
Bare lawn in need of overseeding.

4. A caller wants to reseed. What seed should he use?

A: For a new seeding, use a turf-type tall fescue or a Kentucky bluegrass. Use either 100% of either of these types or use a 50% mix of the two. For more information, see this article from the UNL Turfgrass Department on Choosing Grass Seed.

5. A caller has a section in fairly high shade that died out last year. Why and can it be reseeded?

A: In locations of very high shade turf doesn’t always do well. The caller said this had been growing there for 25 years so it could have been a fluke that the lawn died out last year. You can reseed now with regular turf or you can use a shady groundcover such as a carex species.

6. When is the time to transplant coreopsis to a location with more sun?

A: Now would be a great time. Mid April through mid-late May is a great time to transplant perennials.

7. This caller has some large pin oaks that need to be pruned to make it easier to mow underneath the tree. Is it too late now to do that?

A: Yes, it would be better to wait until late fall to prune the oaks now. Oak trees are susceptible to oak wilt which is spread by a beetle in the summer months. It is best to avoid pruning them at this time of the year to reduce the incidence of disease.

8. What kind of tree would be a good choice for shade production in a backyard?

A: Any of the oak species, shagbark hickory, sycamore, Linden, Kentucky coffeetree, Black locust, thornless honeylocust, hackberry, and many others.

Curly Dock, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ, Bugwood
Photo of Curly Dock from Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

9. A caller wants to know what to do for management of curly dock?

A: 2,4-D or Trimec can be used this time of year or use a mixture of 2,4-D and Roundup.

10. What do you do for thistles growing throughout a yard?

A: 2,4-D or Trimec, but these products are best used in the late fall or before flowering. Thistles are a biennial so if you can dig up the plants as a rosette in the first year of growth they will die.

11. This caller has cherry trees that are suckering. Can one of the suckers be dug up now to start another plant?

A: Yes, it can be done now, but fall would be a better time of the year for this. If it needs to be done, it can be done now. However, depending on the type of sucker growth, the new plants may not be the same as the original plant or they may have weak growth.

12. An email from a listener asked what is wrong with his pin oak that has leaves that are curled up like they were hit with a spray? He wondered if they were too close to the windbreak that is 20 feet away? Is there a certain distance you want to stay away from your windbreak when planting other trees?

A: You do need to give your trees space to grow, but pin oaks are often planted as a third, interior row to a windbreak. The spacing between rows would be 15-20 feet, so the proximity to the windbreak would not be a problem in this instance. Most of the time if a tree is lightly hit with spray drift from a pesticide, it will not show in the tree every year unless it is hit every year. In this case, I would ask for a picture or sample to help with further diagnosis.

13. When is the best time to transplant peonies? Why isn’t the rhubarb up yet?

A: Fall is the best time to transplant peonies. If necessary for construction or moving purposes, it can be done yet this spring. Plant them at the same depth at their new location. As for the rhubarb, give it a few more weeks to see if it comes up before giving up on it. If it is in a location that is more exposed to cold winds the soil may have not warmed up enough yet this spring.

14. This caller wants to know what type of fertilizer to use in a garden?

A: A low grade, balanced fertilizer is best for a garden, like a 10-10-10 or 12-12-12 with slow release fertilizer is best.

15. The final caller of the day wanted to know if now was the time to fertilize pecans?

A: Many of the trees in our environment have sufficient nutrients for growth and so fertilization on these pecan trees may not be necessary. If you are concerned with the growth of the tree, take a soil test to see where the fertility levels are. If it is growing fine, don’t fertilize it because our trees and other plants can be over-fertilized which can cause injury or even death.

Yard and Garden: July 8, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for July 8, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dr. Paul Read, Viticulture Specialist for Nebraska Extension with Guest Intern Vivian from China

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/9b24 and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1. The first caller of the day wanted to know if they can prune the Cleveland Pear tree that has branches that are low and too tight to the trunk?

A. The best time for pruning a tree like this would be while it is dormant. For a situation like this where the caller is only removing a few branches to help with the growth of the branches and to reduce future problems with the tight branch arrangement it would be fine to remove them now. It would be better to remove branches like this before they break in a storm due to weak attachment to the trunk.

2. A caller has Anjou pear trees that were planted in 2013. Now the bark from the graft union up about 10-12 inches has the bark peeling and now has some black leaves. What would cause this?

A. This would be from sunscald. There is no way to fix sunscald once it occurs. Don’t paint the wound with anything, allow it to heal itself. The black leaves could be due to fireblight. You can cut 6-8 inches past the diseased portion of the limb to cut the fireblight off the tree. The black could also be anthracnose which is not damaging to the plant and there is no need to spray anything for anthracnose.

sunscald-bugwood
Sunscald Photo by William Jacobi, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

3. This caller has an oak tree that is dripping sap on the vehicles parked under it. What would cause this?

A. Aphids feeding on the leaves of trees will excrete honeydew that can drip on vehicles underneath the tree. Aphids are not very damaging and have a lot of predatory insects that feed on them. They can be sprayed with sevin or eight or another general insecticide, but they should fade out on their own with predator insects.

4. A caller has blue spruce trees that look dirty but the tips are still green. What would cause this?

A. This is most likely due to environmental stress from the heat and humidity. If the ends of the branches are still green, the tree will be fine. Make sure your tree has a mulch ring around it and that you keep it well watered in the heat of the summer.

5. This caller has a patch of lilies where a quarter of the patch has only grown to be about 6 inches tall for the past 2 years. The rest of the patch looks good, but this area doesn’t look healthy. Can these be improved?

A. This could be due to hardiness in some varieties that are only suitable for our environment for a couple of years. It also could be due to some bulb mites. It would be a good idea to dig up some of the bulbs to see if they have any damage on the bulbs.

6. A caller has a pine tree with a lot of sap on the branches and the grass in the lawn won’t green up. Why is this?

A. Woodpeckers or insects feeding on a pine tree can cause sap to leak from the wounds left behind. The insects can be controlled with bifenthrin or permethrin (eight). If it is woodpeckers, the damage is minimal and will not cause any problems to the tree. Check how much water the lawn is actually receiving by using catch cans during the water intervals normally followed. Lawns need 1 1/2 inches of water per week. If the water is fine, there are a lot of fungal diseases in the lawn, it could be one of those. Fungal diseases in the home lawn are usually sporadic and therefore don’t require fungicide applications.

7. This caller lives on an acreage surrounded by farmground. She is considering growing grapes on this large plot of land. Are grapes easy to grow and would grapes have a benefit to the wildlife in the area?

A. Grapes are a large commitment, especially if you plan to sell products from them. You can be successful with only a few plants for the family to use for grape production. A few good choices for this area would include Frotenac or Valiant. The first year the grapes would need extra care, but after that they would be more self-sustaining. Deer will feed on the foliage. If you decide to grow your grapes for commercial use, register  your acreage with the driftwatch website at  www.fieldwatch.com to help avoid problems from drift since grapes are very sensitive to drift damage.

8. A caller has strawberries that were planted and now have very small fruits and the plants are not making runners.

A. Everbearing strawberries are typically very small for fruit size. You might try planting some newer varieties that are June bearing to get larger fruits. Some good choices would include honeoye or albion or sparkle.

9. This caller has an ash tree that is 7 years old and the tree snapped off in the wind. There is mold in the trunk and it is suckering. What can be done to plant a new tree?

A. You can get a company to come in and grind out the stump or rent a stump grinder to do it yourself. The suckers that keep growing back will continue to for a few years, they can be cut out and treated with a roundup or 2,4-D product. You can plant a new tree within just a few feet of the old tree, since this wasn’t a very large tree yet.

10. A facebook photo came in with a odd structure that appeared by a tree. What is this?

A. This would be a stinkhorn fungus. They are not harmful to the plants growing in the area. There is not control other than mechanical removal of the fungus. Do not eat these as they are not edible, they would be a poisonous mushroom.

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Stinkhorn Fungus

11. The last caller of the day has tomatoes in a raised bed. When they ripen for harvest, the end of the tomato seems blighted. What would cause this?

A. This is blossom end rot. It is a calcium deficiency that develops in our plants in drought situations because calcium is only available to plants after it has been dissolved in water. There is no control for this, it should only last for a few weeks early in the growing season and then the plants should grow out of it.