Yard and Garden: August 3, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for August 3, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am this was the final episode for 2018. It can be found again next spring on kutt995.com for online listening. If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: go.unl.edu/yardandgarden18 and be entered to win a free tree diagnostic book.

Guest Hosts: Kevin Christiansen, Horticulture Instructor at SCC Beatrice & Evan Alderman, Turfgrass Management and Horticulture Instructor at SCC Beatrice

1. The first caller of the day has a windbreak that has elms growing in it. How can he kill the elms and not harm the windbreak trees?

A. In this situation you need to use a herbicide that will kill the elms but will not be translocated through the roots into the surrounding windbreak trees. Tordon should NOT be used in this location. A good option would be either glyphosate, Roundup, or a 2,4-D product. Use these 2 products as a stump treatment on the tree just after cutting the tree off.

2. A caller has cucumbers that are blooming but are not producing any fruit yet. Why are the cucumber not producing? This caller also wondered how to control puncturevine?

A. The cucumbers could be due to no female flowers, if all the flowers are male, they will not produce any fruits. Sometimes our plants start with just male flowers and the females will come in later. It could also be due to low pollinators around the plants. If not many bees or beetles or other insects are found around the plants, they cannot be pollinated and may need to be hand pollinated. Hand pollination can be done by running a cotton swab through all of the blooms, this would move pollen from male flowers to female flowers. Puncturevine can be controlled with a 2,4-D product in the fall. Apply the 2,4-D in mid-September and in mid-October.

3. When should you transplant surprise lilies?

A. Surprise lillies can be transplanted or divided just after the flower dies back in the fall.

4. This caller has foxtail in the vegetable garden. Can anything be sprayed in the garden to control the foxtail?

A. There is nothing that can be sprayed over a garden to control foxtail and not harm the garden plants. The best option would be to use preen in the spring and summer to stop the germination of annual weeds such as foxtail. Be sure to use the preen that is labeled for use in a vegetable garden and wait until after all seeds planted have germinated. Mulch would help suppress the weeds in the garden as well. Grass clippings, straw, or other organic mulches will help keep the weeds down to help your vegetable plants grow better.

5. A caller was looking for assistance choosing fruit trees for his acreage. He also has rust on his fruit trees and wants to know how to manage it.

A. There is a great NebGuide on Fruit Tree Cultivars for Nebraska. For rust, this is not the correct time to treat for it. You can spray your trees in the spring with a liquid copper fungicide. For more on care and pest control of your fruit trees, visit: https://food.unl.edu/local-food-production

6. This caller has a windbreak of Red Cedars that are losing limbs. The trees are 100 years old and 30 feet tall. What is wrong with them?

A. This could be due to old age. It may be a good idea to start a new row of trees on the inside of the old row.

7. A caller has nutsedge in his lawn. What can he spray it with and can he still spray it?

A. Sedgehammer is the best control for nutsedge. It can still be sprayed now, however more control will be achieved if applied in the beginning of June, prior to the first day of summer. If sprayed before June 21st, nutlet production will be reduced, thereby reducing the population for the following year.

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Tree planting in the fall

8. This caller wants to know when the best time is to transplant an oak tree?

A. Fall or Spring are both good times to transplant a tree.

9. How do you control cattails and water lilies in a pond?

A. Rodeo is the glyphosate product that is labeled for use in water and it can be used on both of these weeds.

10. How can you control crabgrass and nutsedge in a lawn

A. Quinclorac can be used now for both of these weeds. Or use a pre-emergent herbicide in the spring and again in June for the crabgrass and sedgehammer for the nutsedge in June. Tenacity is another product that should work on both of these weeds.

11. A caller wants to know why we should worry about getting rid of cattails and water lilies in a pond?

A. Weeds in a pond can strangle the waterways or destroy habitat for fish. Some plant life along the edge of the pond can be beneficial, but too much can be a detriment.

12. This caller has lilies with caterpillars in the stem. What are those and how can they be destroyed?

A. This is likely a cutworm. Sevin or eight or Bt applied at the base of the plant can help kill these pests before they damage your plants.

13. When is the proper time to apply a winter fertilizer on a lawn?

A. Fall fertilizer can be applied in late August to mid September and the winter fertilizer can be applied in the middle to late October. It is no longer recommended to apply the winter fertilizer in November as previously recommended.

14. A walk-in listener has a weed they need identified and they need to know how to control it?

A. This is a weed called nimblewill. It is a warm-season grassy weed. It can be treated either with Roundup or Tenacity. If you use Roundup and reseed, apply the roundup now, while the nimblewill is still green and then overseed in a couple of weeks through the end of September.

15. This caller has spaghetti squash that was looking great and then one day it just died. What caused it to die and how can the other plants be protected?

A. This is likely due to squash vine borer. You can use sevin or eight to protect your plants from the squash vine borer. Be sure to apply it at the base of the plant where the plant comes out of the ground. These chemicals will need to be reapplied every 10-14 days throughout the growing season to protect the plants. Otherwise, you can wrap the base of the plant in aluminum foil to prevent the borer from getting into the plant.

16. A caller has watermelons with yellowing leaves. This has happened to his plants 3 years in a row now, he does rotate the crops in the garden. This damage starts at the base of the plants and will eventually kill the whole vine. He has mulch on the garden and waters slowly with a hose for 2 hours at a time. What is causing this problem? Also, when do you transplant iris?

A. This looks to be alternaria leaf spot. He is doing many things to prevent this disease already with mulch and his watering practices. It might be beneficial to try a liquid copper fungicide this year and next year as soon as the symptoms begin. Iris can be transplanted in the fall, September or October would be best.

17. A walk-in listener has a tree they want identified and they want to know why it keeps suckering and what they can do with the suckers?

A. This is a silver maple tree, they are prone to suckering. Suckers should be just cut off as they grow to reduce the amount of energy they take from the main tree. Do not treat the suckers with anything as that could injure or kill the main tree because the suckers are growing off the main tree roots.

18. This caller wants to know why their pepper plants are not growing well?

A.The peppers are planted too closely to a black walnut tree and will not grow well in that location. Black walnut trees produce juglone, which is basically a naturally produced weed killer. Certain plants are more sensitive to juglone, tomatoes and peppers are quite sensitive. The garden should be moved to at least 50 feet from the black walnut of the plants should be grown in a container or raised bed to avoid problems with the juglone.

19. The final caller of the year has hostas planted in a rock garden and they are not growing, they are still small like they were just planted there.

A. The rock garden may be too hot for the hostas and the rocks do not provide any nutrients back to the plants. It might be best to switch to a wood chip mulch to help reduce the heat and add some nutrients and organic matter to the soil.

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Bindweed

This caller also wanted to know what to do to kill the bindweed growing in her Iris beds?

A. Among other plants it is best to use the “glove of death” which is when you wear a chemical-resistant glove and then put a cloth glove over that. Then, dip a few fingers of the gloved hand into Glyphosate and rub those fingers along the stem and leaves of the bindweed to kill it. Basically, the idea is to keep it from flowering and producing more seed, hand pulling will help keep new seed from being deposited into the garden which can be viable for up to 60 years.

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Yard and Garden: March 30, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for March 30, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Justin Evertson, Green Infrastructure Coordinator, Nebraska Forest Service

1.The first caller of the year has brown rot in her apricot and cherry trees. How can this be managed this spring?

A. Brown rot is a fungus that affects the fruit of stone fruit trees. Spraying with Captan or Chlorothalonil products or using an Orchard Fruit Tree Spray throughout the growing season will reduce the disease. Avoid spraying during bloom if using a combination spray that contains an insecticide to avoid damage to pollinating insects. For more information on spraying and timing, visit food.unl.edu/local-food-production and click on ‘Managing Pests in Home Fruit Plantings

2. A caller has been advised to use a type of fescue called ‘Water Saver Fescue’ because it is more drought tolerant. Would this be a good turf choice?

A. This variety is a turf-type tall fescue variety that is an RTF variety. The RTF is a new type of tall fescue that forms rhizomes, allowing it to fill in a yard rather than just form clumps like the traditional tall fescue. Turf-type tall fescues are preferred to other types of grasses because they do well in our environment and are more drought tolerant than other turf species, such as Kentucky Bluegrass. This wouldn’t be any more drought tolerant than any other turf-type tall fescue species, but it would be drought tolerant.

3. When should a person fertilize their lawn?

A. If using the maximum fertilizer applications for a year, we recommend fertilizing with the holidays: Arbor Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, and Halloween. It is not necessary to do all of these fertilizer applications. If you leave the grass clippings on your lawn, that replaces one fertilizer application over the course of a growing season. If you only apply fertilizer one time per  year, the best time is at Halloween. If you would like to apply 2 applications per year, the other time would be to add an application on Arbor Day.

4. This caller wants to know what is best to use in a vegetable garden to keep the weeds down?

A. In a home vegetable garden, mulch is going to be best for weed control. There are a lot of mulch products that can be used in the garden to reduce weeds including: wood chips, grass clippings (that have not been treated with any pesticides), newspaper, leaves, and cardboard.

green-asparagus-pixabay5. A caller wants to plant a new asparagus bed. How should she go about planting and caring for her asparagus?

A. Asparagus is a great plant for a home garden. Many people want to get plant starts from a neighbor to start their patch, but it is best to just purchase a new set of crowns. When planting asparagus crowns, dig a trench 8-12 inches deep and bury the crowns only under 2 inches of soil. As the plants poke up through the soil, add more soil until the soil is level. Avoid harvesting asparagus until the third season of growth to allow the crowns enough time for root production. For weed control, mulch is best, the same mulches used on a vegetable garden work great for asparagus beds. Preen that is labeled for use around asparagus can be used in the spring to prevent annual weeds from germinating. In late May to early June, when finished harvesting asparagus for the year, you can break all the spears off below ground, leaving no green growth above ground, and spray glyphosate over the bed to reduce weeds.

6. This caller has Colorado Spruce trees with needles at the bottom of the tree that are turning brown. What is wrong with the tree and how can it be fixed?

A. This is likely due to needle cast disease. You can spray the tree for needle cast in May using a liquid copper fungicide. For more information, view this Nebraska Forest Service publication on Diseases of Evergreen Trees.

7. When is a good time to transplant Iris and Peonies?

A. The best time is in the fall, but it can be done now. They may not bloom this spring if you move them now, but will bloom again next year. Be sure to get the peony planted at the same depth it is now or it won’t bloom.

8. A caller has a vine growing on the trees they thought was poison oak. How can it be controlled?

A. It is likely that this is woodbine or Virginia creeper. It doesn’t all have to be killed off, it makes a great groundcover. Cut off the parts growing up the tree and leave the rest for a groundcover. If you need to manage it cut it off and treat with glyphosate or triclopyr or just hand pull.

9. The final caller of the day has recently read that trees can “communicate” to other trees if they are attacked by a pest to help the other tree prepare to defend themselves from the pest problem. Is there any research on this?

A. There is a theory that trees communicate. A German Forester is looking into this idea further. Here is the Article from the Smithsonian Magazine regarding this topic and the research on how trees communicate.

Yard and Garden: April 1, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 1, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Daryl Andersen and Kent Thompson from the Little Blue NRD

1. The first caller of the 2016 season has boxelder bugs in their home and need to know how to control them.

A. Boxelder bugs are not harmful to humans and will not populate within our homes. They enter in the fall and will emerge in the spring to leave our homes and go back outdoors. If found indoors, it is best to just vacuum them up or dispose of them in other manners. Barrier sprays around the home will not eliminate the problem, but they can reduce the numbers found in the home. Also, make sure that all cracks and crevices in your home are sealed up and that all screens on windows and doors don’t have any holes in them.

2. This caller has a very sandy lawn, what is the best turf for this area?

A. They may want to do a soil test to let them know for sure what they are dealing with. The best turfgrass selections for this area are Kentucky bluegrass and turf-type tall fescue. You can either select a mixture of these two turfgrasses or find 100 percent of either of them. These grasses perform the best in our environment. It might be a good idea to add organic matter to the lawn area to help improve the soil. Aerate the lawn first then apply a thin layer of compost and rake or lightly till that into the top layer, then overseed the lawn. Now is a great time to overseed, apply light, frequent watering to keep the seed moist while it is germinating.

3. This caller has an old windbreak. They are looking to replant parts of it with red cedars in a multi-row windbreak. How many trees would they need, what is the spacing for these trees? What kind of preparation should they do to the site prior to planting?

A. The NRCS has specifications on tree spacing based on the species. For eastern red cedar, they recommend 12-15 feet between each tree for spacing. Based on that and the space she has in her windbreak, she can figure out how many trees she should plan to order from the NRD. This fall would be a good time to till up the area to prepare it for the trees to be planted next spring. Kent Thompson suggests preparing the soil for tree planting like they would prepare the area for a garden.

4. This caller has ladybugs in their home and wants to know how to get rid of them and where they are coming from?

A. Ladybugs are a predatory insect, meaning that they feed on other insects, such as aphids. They can be found outdoors on many different plant species based on their food sources. Ladybugs are one of the insects that move indoors during the fall and then leave the house in the spring to go back outdoors, so we often see them in the home in both seasons. They are not harmful to us when they come indoors. If found indoors, it is best to just vacuum them up or dispose of them in other manners. Barrier sprays around the home will not eliminate the problem, but they can reduce the numbers found in the home. Also, make sure that all cracks and crevices in your home are sealed up and that all screens on windows and doors don’t have any holes in them.

Termites
Photo of Termites from UNL Department of Entomology

5. Does wood mulch increase the likelihood of termites in our homes?

A. No, wood chip mulches are great to use for plant health. Termites will not survive in mulch if they are found in the trees being made into mulch due to the mulching process or because they dry out to quickly in mulches. However, it is best to not place mulch in locations where it is touching wood window frames or siding. According to Iowa State University, mulches increase the moisture in the soil which favors termite exploration, but any mulch will increase the moisture in the soil. So you can continue to use wood chip mulches because they are the best mulch for plants.

6. This caller wants to know if there are any regulations on rain barrels in the Fairbury area and if a rain barrel is a good option for watering?

A. There are currently no regulations against the use of a rain barrel in Nebraska. Rain barrels are a great option for watering, however it is recommended that this water not be used on vegetable gardens due to the contaminants in the water from the roof that may get into the plant parts we consume. It is a great way to save our fresh, clean water for other uses and to use rain water for watering the lawn, trees, shrubs, and flowers. Be sure to use the water in a timely fashion so that it doesn’t sit too long and attract mosquitoes, or use a screen over the entrance hole to keep insects out of the water.

7. A caller planted 3-4 feet tall blue spruces last year through the correctly recommended practices of planting a tree. He purchased the trees from a grower in Oregon. He watered as needed but avoided overwatering. The trees were checked for diseases with none found. What caused this death and how can he avoid it when he replants?

A. The sample of the trees showed that these trees suffered from environmental stress, which can be any number of problems. These trees are planted on a new site with no protection from wind and construction type of soil. The trees purchased for replanted should be purchased from a local source. A soil test could be done to see if there is any nutrients that should be added to the soil prior to planting for better health of the trees. Otherwise, this problem with environmental stress is common and hard to understand.

8. A caller has a sewer smell to his water, does he need new pipes?

A. Call the plumber or the city to have them look at it. It may be a situation where new pipes are needed, but we can’t tell for sure.

9. This caller has a problem with wild oats growing in their lawn, what can be done to eliminate this weed?

A. Glyphosate products, such as roundup, would be the only thing approved for use in the lawn. Then he will have to overseed. As long as the wild oats are up and growing now, he could go in and spray them and wait a week then overseed the area to bring grass back in and keep the wild oats out.

2016-04-01 10.52.50
Galls on a tree branch

10. A person brought in a tree with odd, round structures on the branches. What are they and can they be controlled?

A. These are galls. Galls are produced by insects and are generally not harmful to trees. if they get high in populations, like they often do on bur oak trees, they can reduce the vigor and growth of the trees. It is very difficult to effectively treat them with insecticides. Cultural controls, such as cleaning up all debris and pruning out and destroying affected areas would be the best control.

11. This caller has fruit trees that are suckering or producing growth from the base of the trunk where it comes out of the ground. What can they do about these suckers?

A. Suckers can be removed from any tree any time throughout the growing season, and should be removed so they don’t get too large and take too much water and nutrients from the main plant. Don’t spray these or use any stump treatment on them after you cut them off or you can damage or even kill the main plant.

12. A caller has a red oak that is slower to leaf out but by May it is usually leafed out well with large, nicely colored leaves throughout the entire tree. Is this a concern that it is slow to leaf out?

A. If the tree does eventually come out and leaf with full-sized leaves throughout the entire canopy and the leaves have good color, it is not a concern. Some trees are just a little later to leaf out than others to avoid highs and lows of spring weather. As long as the tree does come out by summer with leaves the way they should grow and throughout the canopy, it is in good health.

crabgrass, Joseph Berger, Bugwood
Crabgrass Photo By: Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org

13. This caller wanted to know when to fertilize with crabgrass control and when to overseed their lawn?

A. Crabgrass control and overseeding should not be applied at the same time as the crabgrass pre-emergence will also prevent the germination of our turfgrass seed. Overseeding can be done in the month of April, it is better to get it down from April 1-15 but can be done as late as the end of April. Once overseeding is completed, no chemicals should be applied until 3 mowings have been done on the new grass seed. Fertilization should be applied around Arbor Day. Crabgrass control needs to be applied when the soil temperatures have reached 55 degrees Fahrenheit because crabgrass germinates at 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit. As of April 1, Beatrice soil temperatures were at 47.6 degrees Fahrenheit, so we are still 1-2 weeks away from applying crabgrass control.

14. A caller has a soft water system that was installed and goes through the outside water faucet. Will this hurt plants that are watered by this softened water?

A. This water contains a higher level of sodium after it goes through the softener because the water softener exchanges calcium and magnesium for sodium. This sodium can replace potassium in plants and disrupt the functions in the plants, causing it to die, according to Illinois Extension. So, due to the high sodium content, softened water is not recommended to be used on household plants, lawns, or gardens. It might be a good idea for this caller to try out a rain barrel for watering their lawn and garden areas.

15. The final caller of the day has a pear tree that is 7-8 years old and has very low blooming. What is causing that?

A. Many pear trees need to be cross pollinated from a different species or variety of pear tree to produce fruit. It would be helpful to plant another type of pear tree in your landscape to help pollinate the tree. Also, remember to not spray chemicals on the tree while the tree is in bloom to avoid damaging any pollinator insects.

Yard and Garden: April 10, 2015

Yard and Garden Green Logo

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 10, 2015. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 31, 2015. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dick Campbell from Campbell’s Nursery in Lincoln, NE

1. The first caller wanted to know when to trim trees?

A: This depends on the type of tree to be trimmed. Oaks should not be pruned from April 1 through mid July to avoid susceptibility to Oak Wilt, a deadly disease that affects oak trees. Maples and birches will bleed sap excessively if pruned right not. This bleeding is not damaging to the tree, but it can be messy. Otherwise, it is good practice to prune deciduous trees during the dormant season so you can see through the trees to any crossing branches and air flow through the canopy.

2. This caller has a peach tree that produces too well. He wanted to know how to make the tree produce less fruit?

A: Fruit thinning should occur on fruit trees to help avoid branches breaking later in the season if they get too heavy due to fruit. The fruit on any fruit tree should be spaced 6-10 inches apart, leaving only one fruit on the branch every 6-10 inches. This will give you nice sized fruits that will not weigh down the branches.

3. A gentleman has ash trees that are loosing bark off the trunk. What would be causing this and how can it be fixed?

A: This could be caused by frost cracking. Frost cracks occur due to rapid temperature changes during the winter months. There is no cure for a frost crack and they may never heal over. Some trees may be able to close this wound, but if not it is an area where decay can enter the tree, as well as insects and diseases.

4. This caller uses ammonium sulfate on their lawn. Can this harm his lawn?

A: This can be harmful to the lawn, if the fertilizer is not spread uniformly throughout the lawn. If it gets concentrated too high in one are of the lawn, a burn can occur on the turfgrass. Otherwise, it will work fine as a quick release fertilizer.

5. Another caller has a steep slope in full sun in his lawn. What is a good perennial groundcover to use that does not have to be mowed?

A: Buffalograss is a good low management, perennial groundcover for full sun that wouldn’t have to be mowed. There are a lot of new varieties to choose from including, the newest from UNL, Sundancer Buffalograss that is darker green, has a denser canopy, and establishes faster. For more information on buffalograss care, see these UNL NebGuides: Establishing Buffalograss Turf in Nebraska and Management of Buffalograss Turf in Nebraska 

6. This caller had old Lilac bushes used as a hedge. She had cleaned them up and noticed there was a lot of dead branches and some new growth of branches. What should she do to clean them up and get them growing nicely again?

A: Prune out the dead canes, leave as much of the new, healthy growth as possible this year. Over the next few years, she can prune more of the larger, older canes out to bring it back to healthy growth. Don’t use a rejuvenation pruning with these lilacs because the older they are the harder it is for them to come back from such a drastic pruning. Watch out for borers and use systemic insecticides if holes are found at the base of the shrubs.

7. This caller had locust trees in the roadside. What should she do to get rid of them?

A: Cut the trees down and do a stump treatment with herbicides labeled for use on trees in a roadside.

8. A caller wanted to know what to do when planting new strawberry bushes and if they can be planted in containers? He also wanted to know what to do with shrub roses that grew taller than they should have, how much can he prune off of those roses?

A: Plant the strawberries to where the crown of the plant is just at the soil surface. Plant them 1 foot apart within the row and space the rows 4 feet apart. After planting you can use a pre-emergent herbicide on them to reduce weeds. Yes, they can be planted in a container, but that container will need to be protected through the winter months to get the strawberries to overwinter. As for the roses, you can cut those back to 6-8 inches tall rather than just taking a few inches off of the top. This will give you new growth that will produce more flowers throughout the entire shrub rather than some flowers just on the ends and sides.

 9. This caller had bagworms on his blue spruce in the past. He has now noticed that the top few feet of the spruce has died. Is this due to the bagworms? How can this be fixed?

A: This would be from a fungal disease called canker that is very common to spruce trees. From the point of the canker and anything above it, the tree will die and sap will flow from that canker location. There is no cure for canker, but the infected area of the tree can be removed to a location below the canker. It may regrow a new leader, but it may also continue to grow with a flat top. Bagworms can be treated with Bt, carbaryl, permethrin, or malathion around the third week of June or when the bagworms are immature and crawling around on the tree.

10. A caller wanted to know when to prune shrub roses? She also has a weeping white birch, when should this be fertilized?

A: Shrub roses can be pruned now. The weeping white birch should be fertilized just before they start to send sap up throughout the tree, which will begin soon. Watch all birch trees for borers, as this is a common pest in birches. Systemic insecticides, such as those containing imidacloprid, can be applied in the spring to help with borers in the tree.

11. This caller had apple trees that are 15 years old. When should they be sprayed for insects and diseases and what should they be sprayed with?

A: Orchard fruit tree sprays can be applied to all fruit trees. These have an insecticide and a fungicide to help with many problems that fruit trees face in Nebraska. This product should be applied at petal fall and every 10-14 days following. Be careful to not use insecticides on fruit trees while the flowers are blooming so no harm comes to the pollinators helping fruit development.

12. A gentleman wanted to know how to control Star of Bethlehem?

A: Spray with a combination product, such as Trimec. September 1st would be the prime time to do this so that the chemical will be taken into the bulb when the plant is taking nutrients into the bulb to help it get growing the following spring.