Yard and Garden: June 23, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 23, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Mike Onnen, Manager for the Little Blue NRD & Donnie Engelhardt, Assistant Manager for the Little Blue NRD

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/44qr and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1.The first caller of the day wanted to know if it was time to spray for bagworms yet this year and what to use for bagworms?

A. Yes, the bags have emerged. There is time for a couple of weeks yet to get them sprayed, just make sure you spray before the bags are 1 inch in length for best control. You can use any general insecticide for controlling bagworms such as sevin, eight, bifenthrin, tempo, or Bt can be used for a safer control method. Bt will not harm bees and other beneficial insects.

Bagworm4

Bagworm

2. A caller has 2 large oak trees that when he parks his truck underneath it gets sticky from the aphids in the tree. What can be done to manage these?

A. The aphids are producing honeydew as an excretion and they do feed on the oak trees, but often this is not that damaging to the tree. You can spray for the aphids in the tree with a general insecticide, but if you give it a little time predatory insects will come in and kill the aphids. If you spray, you will kill the predators as well as the aphids. It is often not necessary to spray for aphids in a tree.

3. This caller has lilies that have grown too thick in her one garden bed. When can she divide these to transplant some in a new location?

A. This could be done this fall or you can wait and thin the lilies in the spring as well, either would be fine. I would advise against transplanting and dividing plants this time of year because in the heat, the plants don’t have enough roots to get to more water to keep them cool.

4. A caller has a weeping willow that has many leaves turning yellow and the tree is thinning. What would be wrong with the tree and how can it be managed?

A. This tree is likely dealing with environmental stress. There are not spots on the leaves to indicate a disease or damage that would be from insects. After viewing the photos, it is determined it could be due to improper planting as it looks too deep with no root flare. There may be stem girdling roots that would not be evident for a few years after planting.

5. How do you control ground squirrels in your yard?

A. There is a great publication on Ground Squirrels from the Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management which shows how to set a trap for ground squirrels.

6. A caller has Iris, yucca, and prickly pear cactus that are all getting many weeds growing in and around these plants. The weeds include both grasses and broadleaf weeds. How can the weeds be controlled without injuring the desired plants?

A. The grasses can be sprayed with Grass-B-Gon or another similar grass herbicide. Unfortunately, there isn’t a selective herbicide that will kill broadleaf weeds and not kill broadleaf desired plants. For the broadleaf weeds, the best defense is to hoe the weeds out and mulch the garden in the future to hold the weeds back.

7. This caller has a plum hedge that has holes in most of the leaves throughout the hedge. The holes form initially as a brown spot and then a hole appears. What would cause this?

A. This is likely due to herbicide drift. There is no control for that, but if it is minimal it shouldn’t impact the hedge too much. However, multiple years of herbicide drift to the same plants can start to stress and in some cases kill the plants.

8. A caller has onions that have formed a soft, brown spot on the onions when they were dug recently. What would cause this?

A. This is likely a rot issue that developed from a pathogen in the soil. It is always best practice to rotate the crops. Also, ensure that you properly cure your onions before storage.

9. How can you control sandburs?

A. Crabgrass control in the spring will work for sandburs as well as foxtail and crabgrass. All of these are annual grasses.

10. A caller has tried to plant roses in the same location for a couple of years now and it seems like they grow to about 18 inches, bloom, but then die over the winter months. The are planted in a garden with rock mulch, watered with a bucket of water as needed, and were pruned off in March. Why can’t the caller get the roses to live longer than one year?

A. This sounds like mostly environmental stress to these plants. Rock mulches are hot and absorb no water, switch to a wood chip mulch to cool the roots and hold moisture. Watering should be done with a soaker hose or other type of sprinkler system. When a bucket of water is poured over the plants as needed, the water fills up the top pores of the soil surface quickly and then spread out rather than down. A slow trickle on the plants for a while each week to wet the soil down to about 6-8 inches will be more beneficial. Pruning of roses is best done in the middle of April once growth has begun further to ensure healthy wood is not also removed with the dead wood too early in the spring. Add extra mulch around the plants in the winter months, up to 4-6 inches deep in the winter months, then spread the mulch out to 2-3 inches deep during the growing season. Extra mulch in the winter will help protect the plants from inconsistent temperatures in the winter.

11. This caller wants to know when to dig up garlic? He also wants to know if bleeding hearts can be cut back now?

A. Garlic should be harvested in July after 30-50% of the leaves have died back. Harvest during dry weather and leave the bulbs on the ground to dry for a week before storing. The flower stalks of bleeding hearts can be removed, but the leaves need to be left on the plants to build sugars for next years growth and flower production.

12. How can grasshoppers be controlled if they are in the flower garden?

A. Any general insecticide will work for grasshoppers in flower gardens. Sevin, eight, tempo, bifenthrin, and others will work for flowers. When treating grasshoppers, it is also important to treat the grassy areas of roadsides and ditches where grasshoppers are often found.

13. This caller has grass growing in his asparagus patch. How can the grass be controlled?

A. Hand pull and apply a mulch to the asparagus patch. The earlier you get the mulch applied in the season, the better the control will be. Also, after harvesting is complete, the asparagus can be snapped off below ground level and Roundup or another glyphosate product can be applied as long as there is no green asparagus above the ground.

 

Grasshoppers, J. Larson

The four main pest species of grasshopper in Neb. Top row two striped grasshopper adult, red legged grasshopper adult. Bottom row differential grasshopper adult, migratory grasshopper adult.

14. How can you control grasshoppers in the vegetable garden?

A. Sevin, eight, and bifenthrin are labeled for use in the vegetable garden. Also, remember to treat for grasshoppers in tall grasses along roadsides and ditches. Follow the PHI (pre-haravest interval) to know how many days after application necessary to wait to harvest the vegetables.

15. A caller wants to know when to transplant peach trees?

A. Fall or spring are both good times to transplant any trees.

16. The final caller of the day has a pond with moss or duckweed in it making it cloudy. What can be done to clean up the water?

A. Avast SRP is labeled for Duckweed and Copper sulfate can be used for Algae.

Advertisements

Grasshoppers!!

Grasshopper via Mark Robinson,Flickr

Photo of a Grasshopper from Mark Robinson via Flickr Creative Commons License

This year has been quite warm and fairly dry. We have been lucky to have received the rain that we did see come through in July after such a dry June. However, that warm, dry weather has lead to an increase in grasshopper populations this year. These grasshoppers have been a large problem in our lawns and gardens.

Grasshoppers can be a problem in grassy areas and in our gardens. They will feed on flowers and some vegetables such as lettuce, beans, and sweet corn under normal situations. However, in situations where the population is high, like this year, they can be found feeding on nearly all vegetables and in some cases even trees and shrubs. They can even be found eating paper, paint, and window screens. On our plants, you will notice a high number of grasshoppers as well as the chewed appearance of the leaves, fruits, and flowers of many of our plants.

Grasshoppers are often reduced in population due to the environment during their developmental period of life. If we have cool, wet weather right after they hatch from their eggs, typically in early to mid-May, this will help reduce the populations. The nymphs are vulnerable to death due to starvation in the early development of their lives. In most years, we face a fairly wet, cool May that helps reduce the population of grasshoppers, but this year that did not happen, so our populations are high.

Grasshoppers can be managed fairly well. There are some good cultural and mechanical practices that can help as well as some use of chemicals in other locations.

Keeping overgrown grassy areas mowed and/or tilled will help reduce the sites where grasshoppers prefer to lay their eggs, therefore helping to reduce the population. It may also help to leave some of the border areas of a large yard, especially in an acreage setting, unmowed so that the grasshoppers will stay in the unmowed areas of the lawn and not move as quickly into the lawn and garden areas. You may also plant some trap crops, such as zinnias or other flowers in these border areas to attract grasshoppers to these plants instead of your lawn or garden.

For chemical control, it is best to treat grasshoppers when they are young. Once grasshoppers become full grown adults, they have a decreased susceptibility to insecticides and they are larger which also makes them harder to control with insecticides. With all insects, management is much more effective if insecticides are applied at a younger age for the insects to be controlled.

illinois bundleflower

Look for areas along the roadsides for spraying where eggs are deposited.

When applying insecticides for grasshoppers, first concentrate the sprays on the roadsides and ditches where grasshoppers lay their eggs to get them when they first emerge from the eggs. Then you can focus on the lawn and garden areas. In the vegetable garden, be sure to use insecticides that are labeled for use in the vegetable garden such as sevin or eight and follow the PHI. The PHI is the amount of days to wait to harvest after spraying has been done. Most any general insecticide can be used in locations not in the vegetable garden including sevin, eight, or malathion, just make sure the label has grasshoppers and the area to be treated on it and it will work.

The information for this article came from the NebGuide: A Guide to Grasshopper Control in Yards and Gardens by Gary Hein Extension Entomologist, John Campbell Extension Entomologist, & Ron Seymour Extension Educator.

Yard and Garden: July 15, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for July 15, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Julie Albrecht, Professor in Health and Nutrition Science

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/9b24 and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1. The first caller of the day wanted to know how to control corn earworm in his sweet corn?

A. The best option would be for next year, because at this stage it is too late to control them if you are already harvesting. It would be best to choose a resistant variety so chemicals won’t be necessary. You can spray for the earworm, but it should only be done twice per season with carbaryl (Sevin) and it should be sprayed on the silks where the eggs are. There will not be much control this late in the season since the earworms are already there.

2. A caller has green beans that are blooming but they are not setting on. What would cause this?

A. This could be due to poor pollination due to low amount of insect activity in the high temperatures. If pollination doesn’t occur soon, you could hand pollinate the plants by using a q-tip to touch the pollen of male flowers and then touch the stigma of the female flowers. It could also be that the flowers present are all male flowers and then it will just take time for the female flowers to appear.

3. This caller noticed that they have a lot of grasshoppers in their flowers. What can they do to control them?

A. Any general insecticide will work on grasshoppers. Sevin, eight, tempo, malathion, etc will work on flowers. Also be sure to spray the ditches and roadsides where grasshoppers are common. If grasshoppers are in the vegetable garden only use chemicals labeled for use in the vegetable garden and watch the PHI for when you are able to harvest after applying chemicals.

4. A caller has acorn squash in his garden. Recently, one of the plants all of a sudden died, the leaves turned brown and it got wilty. He is watering all of the plants the same and only one plant looks like this. What would cause that?

A. This is probably due to squash vine borer. There is no way to fix the problem once it has gotten to the point of wilt and death. When you remove the plant, cut open the stalk to see the borer caterpillar. For the remaining plants use sevin, eight, or bifenthrin at the base of the plants to reduce the chances of those plants getting the borer as well. You can also wrap the base of the plant with aluminum foil or a toilet paper tube to protect it from borers laying eggs to bore into the plants.

squash vine borer damage

5. How long should you boil green beans when processing them and do they need to be cut to certain lengths when processing?

A. Green beans can be used whole or cut to any desired length. For processing, boil in a pressure canner at 11 pounds pressure for a dial gauge or 10 pounds pressure for a weighted gauge canner. They should be boiled for 20 minutes for pint jars and 25 minutes for quart jars. If you are blanching the green beans for freezing, they should be boiled for 3 minutes and then immediately placed in cold water prior to placing in freezer bags for freezer storage. For more information on processing foods, visit the National Center for Home Food Preservation at: http://nchfp.uga.edu/

6. Why is it not safe to can in an oven?

A. The jars can explode and that can cause the glass on the door of the oven to explode as well. There are no recommendations regarding length of time to can in the oven because there is no way to determine how hot the center of the jar is. It is important to ensure that all of the contents of the jar get to the correct temperature for proper, safe canning practices.

7. A caller is growing tomatoes in feed barrels, the leaves are curled up. Is this due to a soil nutrient issue or what could be causing this, he waters every other day with a hose until the water runs out the drainage holes in the barrels?

A. This could be due to physiological leaf curl. This condition often appears as spring weather gives way to hot, dry summer conditions. Plants often put on large amounts of foliage growth in the spring and they don’t have enough roots to provide sufficient water to support the plant as the weather gets hotter and drier. Plants cope with this water issue by rolling their leaves. The older leaves are usually affected first. Leaves roll upward toward the center mid-vein, without any deformation or twisting. Plant leaves may recover and unroll if the stress is alleviated. Harvest yield is not affected.

8. This caller has heard an old saying that you should put your corn into a brown paper sack before putting it into the freezer for freezing corn on the cob. Is this true?

A. This wouldn’t do anything for the corn. Just make sure that you use a freezer bag for anything you freeze and that you only put it one layer deep until it has all frozen through to get it to freeze faster and help the shelf life of the product.

9. A caller wanted to know how to tell when peaches are ripe?

A. The red coloration is not a good sign for peaches now due to new peach varieties with a lot of red coloration in the skin color. It is best to just pick a few when they are getting close to being mature and try the flavor. You don’t want to pick the fruits before they are ripe as the sugar content will be low. When the base color has turned from green to full yellow they should be mature.

10. The final caller of the day has a tree that he transplanted from a construction site. When it was moved, the roots were slightly damaged and the top of the tree broke out. It lost all of its leaves when it was planted in the new location in late May, but now has new growth on the ends of the branches. Will this tree survive?

A. Give it time, the fact that there is growth on the ends of the branches is hopeful. The tree would have lost apical dominance when it lost the top of the tree. Use a wooden dowel and some masking tape to try to start a new leader. The root damage may not be evident on the tree for 10-15 years so you won’t know for a while if it will survive from the root damage. Keep watering the tree every other day for 20-30 minutes during this year and add a mulch ring that is 2-3 inches deep and 2-3 feet wide around the trunk of the tree.

 

Yard and Garden: June 10, 2016

Yard & Garden for blogThis is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 10, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Paul Hay, Gage County Extension

1. The first caller of the day has a small Dwarf Alberta Spruce that is turning brown. What would cause this?

A. This would be from spider mites. This particular tree species is very susceptible to spider mites. They can be controlled with a strong spray of water or insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils, or a general insecticide such as a permethrin product.

2. This caller wanted to know if it was still ok to apply the second fertilizer application for the lawn?

A. Yes, you can do one around Memorial Day. I would suggest waiting until after this heat wave passes through and make sure the lawn is well-watered when you do fertilize, so you don’t fertilize to a drought-stressed plant which can cause leaf burn.

3. What would cause Clematis leaves to turn yellow, the plants still bloomed fine this year?

A. Clematis has a problem with Iron chlorosis. This could be iron chlorosis which can be treated with an iron fertilizer.

2015-09-22 18.45.39

Squash bugs on zucchini

4. A caller wanted to know what the best control for squash bugs in the garden would be?

A. Squash bugs will become active soon. Look on the underside of the leaves of your cucurbit plants such as cucumber, zucchini, squash, pumpkins, and melons. Squash bugs lay their eggs on the underside of the leaves. If you find the eggs, squash the eggs or remove the leaves. You can also spray for them. Spray on a rotation of every 10-14 days throughout the growing season. Switch between at least 2 of the following: sevin, eight, or bifenthrin.

5. This caller has rocks near the lawn and near some trees. There are weeds growing up through the rocks. Can glyphosate, or Roundup, be used around these trees?

A. If the trees are not close enough to be spraying directly on the trunk or leaves, then it will be fine. Glyphosate is not mobile through the soil like some chemicals.

6. This caller wanted to know what to do about the gnats outside? He cannot go outside right now without being attacked by gnats.

A. There is no longterm cure for gnats, much like mosquitoes. Using bug sprays, especially those containing DEET, will help the most. If you have an outdoor event coming up, you can treat the lawn and surrounding plants with sevin or other general insecticide, but these will not last for more than 2-3 days.

7. Is it too late to plant sweet potatoes? What can you do about grasshoppers in the landscape?

A. No, it is not too late to plant sweet potatoes. This is a warm season crop that really doesn’t like the early spring planting. They will do fine if planted in late May to early June. For grasshoppers in the landscape, they can be sprayed with any general insecticide. If in or nearby the vegetable garden use sevin, eight, or bifenthrin for safety of the produce. Be sure to spray the insecticides in the ditch, roadside, and fence rows where grasshoppers are found in high numbers.

8.  This caller has hemlock in the pasture. Is it poisonous? How can he control it so his cattle don’t eat it?

A. Yes, poison hemlock is poisonous if eaten, not if it is touched. Cattle can be poisoned by it, but they typically don’t eat the poison hemlock if there is an alternate food source. Use 2,4-D or Grazon in the pasture to control poison hemlock or dig it out.

*Don’t use 2,4-D this late in the season around landscape plants and never use Grazon or other products that contain Tordon in a landscape setting.

9. A caller has common mullein in his pasture. How can it be controlled?

A. Common mullein is best controlled with 2,4-D or Grazon. Make sure you spray down into the heart of the plant to get the chemical past the hairy leaves. It is best to spray the smaller plants, it would be too late to spray the larger plants that already have a flower stalk on them. Removal of the flower stalks will help reduce seed production from the full grown plants.

10. This caller has a 16 foot river birch that was planted last fall. Now the leaves have turned yellow and are beginning to fall off of the tree. Can it get too much water? What would cause this problem? She hasn’t been watering the tree much yet since it was planted in the fall.

A. Yes, plants can be overwatered to cause death. Newly planted trees need to be watered because they have no root system developed. A tree that was transplanted at this large of a size is going to have a great deal of transplant shock to overcome. Water was sitting in the hole when the tree was planted, so there may be an issue with water draining from the location. Use a probe or long screwdriver to see if the tree needs water. Push the probe into the soil 12-18 inches, if it goes in easy it doesn’t need water, if it is hard to push the probe in very far, the tree needs to be watered.

11. The final caller of the day wanted to install an electronic timer for watering his garden. What would be the best time to set his timer to water his garden?

A. 4 am-10 am is the best time to water any plants. This helps to water the plants while they are already wet from the dew period. It also helps to water early in the day so that the plants will dry out before night. Plants that are wet and cooler overnight introduce a great environment for diseases to occur. To reduce diseases, it is best to water early in the morning.

Yard and Garden: June 3, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 3, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Sarah Browning, Lancaster County Extension

1. The first caller of the day has strawberries that are all developing but they are rotten fruits. What would cause this and can it be fixed?

A. This is probably due to a fruit rot disease that is caused by a fungus due to the high rains this year. At this point in the season, fungicides will not help and you will not get much of a crop from these plants. If this is a problem seen every year, a liquid copper fungicide can be applied next year. You should start spraying the plants at petal fall right after the blooms finish next season. To help with this disease, also use a mulch around the plants and avoid overhead irrigation.

2. A caller wanted to know if wildflowers do better where grass doesn’t grow very well? Can he still plant wildflowers now?

A. Wildflowers don’t really do better where grass won’t grow, but the area to plant wildflowers does need to be prepared for the wildflowers. It is best to clean up the area with a glyphosate product, such as Roundup, then till the area up and seed the wildflowers. This can still be done now, it will be fine through most of the spring and fall months. Unless you are planting annual wildflowers, which will reseed for each year, you will not get many blooms this growing season. It will take a few years to get the wildflowers going well and weed control will be necessary. If you don’t want any grasses growing in the wildflower patch, you can use grass herbicides and not harm the wildflowers.

3. This caller has pansies that are being eaten, the small white dots are on the underside of the leaves. What would this be and how can they be controlled?

A. This could be aphids which can be controlled with eight, bifenthrin, or malathion. However, pansies are nearing the end of their life as they are a cool season plant. So you could just remove the pansies and plant something else to reduce the problem and not have to use pesticides.

4. A caller has been dealing with high populations of grasshoppers recently. They are feeding heavily on his potatoes. What can be done to control them?

A. In the potatoes, you will need to use an insecticide labeled for use in a vegetable garden such as bifenthrin, sevin, or eight. It would also be helpful to keep the grass mowed around the garden and to treat it with some of these insecticides. Also, grasshoppers are often found in roadsides, so be sure to spray these areas as well to help reduce the overall population.

5. When can peonies and iris be cut back?

A. You can cut off the flower stalks on both of these plants as soon as they are done blooming. However, you need to wait until they die back in the fall before removing any leaves from the plant.

6. This caller has a lawn with patches of darkened areas throughout it. What would cause this?

A. Walk through the dark areas to see if the blades pop back up. If the blades stay down after they are walked on and you can see you footprints, it is due to drought stress and the lawn needs to be watered. Also, look closely at the leaf blades to see if there are small, black/gray structures like tiny balls. This would be slime mold which is also showing up in the lawns now. Slime molds are not a serious problem to the lawn.

7. This caller has a weeping willow. He wants to know if he can prune the branches up so he can mow underneath it?

A. Pruning for a weeping willow is best done in the fall but it can be done now. You can limb it up and shorten some of the branches to make it more accessible for mowing. However, don’t remove more than 1/3 of the plant in one growing season.

8. A caller wanted to know about mosquito control. He had found a recipe online that was with household items and it claims to control mosquitoes for 80 days. Will this work?

A. No. The best control for mosquito control outdoors only last for a few days. It is best, if you are having an outdoor BBQ, to spray the lawn and shrubs around the lawn up to 2 days prior to the event for management of mosquitoes. You can use sevin or eight or malathion or bifenthrin for control. Be sure to use bugspray containing DEET while outdoors. Also, make sure you have no standing water in your lawn to reduce the population of mosquitoes.

Roseslug Collage

Rose slug on the leaf on the left, damage from rose slugs on the right.

9. This caller has roses that have leaves that look shredded or with many holes in them. What can be sprayed on the roses to help them with this problem?

A. This was brought into the extension office later for identification. It was rose slugs. These are small, translucent, green caterpillars with a brown head found on the underside of the leaves. Rose slugs are actually the immature of a sawfly and not a slug at all. They are mostly damaging to the aesthetics of the plant and are not that harmful but they can be treated with sevin dust on the underside of the leaves if they are heavily damaging the plant. Be careful to not get the sevin on the flowers to not harm bees.

10. What digs holes 6-7″ deep straight down into the mulch around trees?

A. This could be either squirrels or skunks or possums that would be digging for insects. Clean up around the tree to help deter the animals.

11. The final caller of the day has a cedar windbreak with a lot of scrub trees growing among the cedars. How can those be controlled?

A. It is best to just cut off the scrub trees and do a stump treatment with a concentrated roundup product. Spraying in the windbreak can damage the cedar trees.

Yard and Garden: May 6, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 6, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Jennifer Morris, Forest Health Specialist for the Nebraska Forest Service

1. The first caller of the day has peach, plum, and apple trees that were recently planted. Should she use tree spikes for fertilizer for the trees and when should that be done?

A. Fertilizer for a tree is usually not necessary in Nebraska soils. Let nature take its course to naturally fertilize the tree. Fertilizer should only be used on trees, or any plant, as it is necessary. A plant can be damaged or even killed if they have too much of a particular nutrient, so it is best to do a soil test prior to applying any type of fertilizer to your plant.

2. A caller has grasshoppers in his lawn and has problems with large populations in the past, but he also has beehives nearby where he would want to spray to control the grasshoppers. Can he treat the grasshoppers and not harm the bees?

A. Insecticides that are commonly used as sprays for grasshopper control are very toxic to bees. You should only use insecticides for the grasshoppers in this situation for serious situations where chemical control is necessary. If sprays are warranted, you would want to do so on a calm day so the spray does not drift to the bees and mow the lawn first to reduce flower heads present that could get pesticides on them to get onto the foraging bees.

3. There is a caller who wants to plant some new apple trees. The trees he currently has continue to face problems with cedar-apple rust. What tree cultivars should he choose that will not have the problems with this disease?

A. There are many apple trees that are resistant to cedar-apple rust. When planting a new apple tree it is best to go in with a tree that is resistant to this disease because cedar trees are common in Nebraska, which is the alternate host. This allows most any apple or crabapple tree to be vulnerable to the disease. For resistant cultivars, see page 3 of this NebGuide on Cedar-apple rust by Amy Timmerman.

4. A caller wanted to know if they can use Roundup (or other glyphosate product) in their garden to kill pampas grass? Can it be wiped onto the stalks of the plant and not harm the peonies or raspberries that are growing with the pampas grass?

A. Yes, it can be used among raspberries and peonies, but it needs to be carefully applied so that you don’t get it on the leaves or other plant parts of the desirable plants. Painting the glyphosate product onto the leaves of the pampas grass will work into killing the grass and will keep it from getting onto the desirable plants. Grass-b-gone may work for it in the peonies and can be sprayed directly over the peonies and cause no harm to them, however this product should not be used in crops that are used for food or feed.

5. A caller has a mum growing on the east side of their house and it didn’t come back. Why is that?

A. Some of our mums are not as hardy as others. This may have been one of the lesser hardy mum plants. This mum was also moved in the fall so it may not have been ready for the winter after being moved or it could be planted in a more exposed location. If there is no green showing in the plant at this point, I would assume it is dead and it is time to replant.

6. A walk-in clientele asked what the orange pods were on her cedar tree? She also wanted to know if she should remove the cedar tree or if she can treat it?

A. This is the gall of the cedar-apple rust disease. In the rainy portion of the spring these show up to release the spores of the disease to move to apple trees. This disease is not harmful to the cedar tree so no treatment and definitely no removal of the tree is necessary.

7. A caller wanted to know how to start a new plant from the family tree peony plant.

A. Prune off a branch of the peony and place it into rooting hormone and then into soil or into a pot of gravel that is kept moist to start roots. Once roots have begun, the plant can be planted into the ground.

8. This caller has a 12-15 year old apple tree that has bark on the trunk that is splitting on the southwest side of the trunk. What would cause this and is it harmful to the tree? He also has a tree that has holes in the trunk that are in a row and about the size of a pencil. What is this from?

A. The holes in a line on the trunk of a tree would be from a yellow-bellied sapsucker, a type of woodpecker. This is not harmful to the tree and has no management strategy. As for the bark splitting on the apple tree, this sounds like sunscald. This is a disease that occurs in the winter when the cells in the bark freeze and thaw quickly and bursts the cells causing the split. There is no control for this and the trees will typically live a long, happy life after this occurs but the scar will remain for the life of the tree.

9. The final caller of the day has a windbreak with evergreens that were planted 9 years ago and they are too close together. What is the recommended spacing for trees in a windbreak?

A. 14-16 feet between trees is the average spacing requirement at this point. You need to maintain that distance so that when the trees are full sized they don’t overlap each other too much which can cause more disease problems.