Yard and Garden: May 11, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 11, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dr. Paul Read, Professor of Viticulture, UNL

1.The first caller of the show has asparagus beetles. How can they be controlled?

A. Use a dust or spray formulation of Sevin to control the beetles. When using chemicals around vegetable or fruit crops, be sure to pay attention to the PHI listed on the chemical label. The PHI is the Pre-Harvest Interval which indicates how much time must pass between the application and harvest to avoid pesticide residues. You can also hand remove the insects, destroy them in a bucket of soapy water after removal. The asparagus beetle should be controlled because they will lay their eggs on the asparagus as it grows which can reduce the saleability. Also, their feeding can reduce the amount of ferns produced which can weaken the plant.

2. A caller has a Bing cherry tree that has been planted in the landscape for a few years and it is not growing and seems to be dying. What is wrong?

A. Sweet cherries, including Bing Cherries, do not grow well in Nebraska weather. For cherries in Nebraska, tart cherries will grow here and do best.

3. This caller has grapes that are not taking off that are in their second year of growth since planting. He has 2 varieties, but not sure which varieties they are. What should be done to get them growing better?

A. Grapes are self-pollinated, so only one variety is necessary. It would really depend on what varieties this caller is growing to know for sure what is wrong with them. They may not be the best choices of varieties for this area. For a listing of good varieties to choose from, visit the UNL Viticulture Program website. For good general care: the plants should be trellised and will be productive by the 3rd year. Water is very important for establishment in the first year. It would be beneficial to mound the soil around the base of the plant during the winter to work as insulation.

He also wanted to know if he could move strawberries into an old baby pool? Would this be enough space for the plants to grow?

A. They would be best grown in the ground, but could live in a baby pool as long as there are drainage holes in the bottom of the pool so the soil doesn’t get saturated.

blossom end rot zucchini

Blossom End Rot on Zucchini

4. How do you deal with blossom end rot in vegetable gardens?

A. Blossom end rot is due to uneven watering. It is technically a calcium deficiency, but the calcium is there it’s just not available to the plant due to the water issues. Even watering is going to be key, it is just hard to do in Nebraska when we face drought periods in between heavy rains. It is just best to water the plants 1 inch of water per week over the week to ensure even, adequate watering. Typically, when we see blossom end rot, we only see it for a couple of weeks early in the season, it is not usually a season-long condition.

5. A caller wants to control the dandelions in her lawn and also reseed. How can she do this safely?

A. We are really ending the window of opportunity for reseeding a lawn this year. It is difficult to get turf established when temperatures start to rise in May. Dandelions are best controlled in the fall with a broadleaf herbicide. At this point, the timing for both control of the dandelions and overseeding the lawn would be around the same time. However, you should not overseed the lawn and use herbicides at the same time or the herbicides could injure the turf seedlings. Tenacity, or a product containing Mesotrione can be used at seeding to control broadleaf weeds and not injure the grass seedlings. I would advise using this tactic in the fall or to overseed in late August to mid-September and allow the grass to grow enough to be mowed 3 times and then use a late fall application of a 2,4-D product to kill the dandelions. If there is time for a second application of the 2,4-D at least 2 weeks after the first application and into the early part of November, that would be most beneficial.

6. This caller has plum trees and elm trees growing in their peonies. What can be used to stop the regrowth of these weedy trees without harming the peonies?

A. The safest option would be to cut the trees off then paint glyphosate (Roundup) on the cut stumps shortly after pruning. Be careful to not get the glyphosate on the peonies to avoid damage to them. I would advise against using 2,4-D in this situation to avoid volatization of 2,4-D and causing problems to the peonies.

This caller also wanted to know if she can use Grass-B-Gon products in the peonies and iris’ to control grasses growing in the plants?

A. Yes, this is labeled for use in broadleaf plants to kill grasses.

7. A caller wants to know what she can use for weeds in the asparagus patch?

A. mulch is going to be the best option for any type of weeds in asparagus. Our herbicides are not labeled for use in this vegetable crop. After she is done harvesting the asparagus for the year, she can cut it back so all green growth is below ground and glyphosate (Roundup) can be used over the bed. This could be used in the fall after the season, followed by mulching the plants in to reduce new growth.

8. This caller has a disease on his pine trees. Is it too late to spray the trees to prevent the disease?

A. This is likely either needle blight or tip blight. The timing for spraying for needle blight is in mid May as the needles are emerging, with a second application in mid to late June, so it would be the correct time to spray for this disease. If the disease is the tip blight, the timing for spraying for that is in the third week of April, just before the needles emerge with a second application 7-14 days later. You would be past the prime window for this disease, but it would still be beneficial this early to treat for this disease as well to avoid too much spread of the disease. With the spring as cool as it has been this year, most things are pushed back a bit and fungicides would still be beneficial for these trees.

9. A caller asked why tordon could not be used for the weedy trees in the peonies that caller #6 asked about?

A. Tordon will kill the peonies as well. Tordon is a mobile chemical that can get from the roots of these trees and into the roots of the peonies, killing them as well. Also, Tordon is not labeled for use in a landscape setting, it is only labeled for roadsides and ditches.

10. This caller has 2 viburnums that are growing in her yard. One has leafed out fine but the other leafed out only part of the way and has now stopped emerging from winter dormancy. Will it be ok?

A. Don’t give up on the plants too soon this year. The spring has been quite cold and unusual for our plants. The general recommendation is to wait until June 1st before determining death in the plants. Because it started growing, it is likely that it will be fine. Make sure that the plant is getting plenty of water to help it pull through. If the plant begins to sucker from the base, this could be a sign that the top had cold damage.

11. A caller has 2 ornamental grasses that haven’t greened up yet. Will they survive or are they dead?

A. Just like with the viburnums, give the plants time to come out of their winter dormancy. Many of the ornamental grasses have not begun to green up this year yet. Wait until June 1st before deciding to destroy the plants that may just be slow to come out of dormancy this year.

12. This caller’s lawn is brown and pulls up with no roots attached. Could it be grubs?

A. If there are no roots attached to the grass, it is most likely due to grubs. Grubs can be managed with a grub control product applied to the grass in mid-June. For the grass that died, you can overseed the area in late August to early September.

13. A caller has a patch of rhubarb that is not growing much and is going to seed early. What can be done about that?

A. Rhubarb will start sending out seed-stalks in warmer weather. Some varieties, though, are more prone to send out seedheads early in the season. Cut off the seedheads as you see them start to form to push energy back into the roots and leaf production rather than into seed production for the plants.

This caller also wanted to know if you can root lilacs from a cut branch?

Lilacs are difficult to get to root. The best chances to get it to grow would be to take a piece from the base of the plants that has roots attached to it already. Divide the plant by taking a section off the side of the plant would be best.

14. What would be a good choice for an organic weed killer for dandelions?

A. If the population is manageable, hand removal would be the best organic choice. There are other products such as corn gluten meal and dried distillers grains which are used for pre-emergence weed control. According to the University of Minnesota, ‘It should be noted that any claimed herbicidal effects of Dried Distillers Grains have not been proven or verified as they have been for corn gluten meal’. For post-emergent organic weed control, vinegar can be used, but it is non-selective so it needs to be used as a spot spray. It is important to remember, that bees love dandelions and a small population can be tolerated and helpful for our pollinators.

15. The final caller of the day wants to know about mulching her garden. She uses straw but wheat comes with the straw mulch. What can she do?

A. Straw mulch can bring weed seeds with it, but it does make a great mulch for a vegetable garden. It would be best to shake the straw out over a tarp before applying it to the garden to pull most seeds out of it. Also, using older straw would help so that the seeds would have all germinated before use. Grass clippings make another great garden mulch. Just make sure that the grass was not treated with a pesticide before applying it to the garden. The pesticide label will tell you if or when those grass clippings can be used on a garden again this year. Grass clippings do break down quickly, so it is best to reapply this mulch often or the weeds will poke through.

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Yard and Garden: June 30, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 30, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Connie Fisk, Cass County Extension Educator

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/44qr and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1.The first caller of the day wanted to know if he could fertilize his tomatoes, potatoes, and cucumbers with the same fertilizer?

A. Yes, the same product could be used for all three of these crops. Be careful when fertilizing to not use too much Nitrogen during the bloom period which will cause the plants to grow large but not produce any fruits. Also, too high of Nitrogen for the plants can lead them to grow large and dense which can lead to more fungal diseases.

2. A question came through email asking what would cause red spots on strawberry leaves?

A. This could be either due to leaf scorch or leaf blight. The leaf scorch will have red spots that have a red or purple center and the leaf blight will be a red spot with a gray center. For both of these diseases, you can use Captan fungicide.

strawberry leaf diseases comparisons

3. How soon can peonies be cut off?

A. Peony leaves should be left on the plant through the growing season and can be removed in the fall when the leaves turn yellow. Otherwise, this time of the year you should only remove the flower stalks. Leaving the leaves on the plant will help the plant build sugars to help it bloom early next year.

4. A caller planted Karl Forester Reed Grass in 2 locations in his landscape at the same time this spring. One location, the grasses are doing well, but in the other location, the grasses are much smaller and not growing well. The worse plants are on the east side of the house while the good grasses are on the west side of the house. What would cause them to grow so differently?

A. The east side of the house would be in more shade than those plants growing on the west side. Most of our grasses like to be grown in full sun, this difference in sunlight could cause the difference in growth. Because they are in different locations, a nutrient deficiency could be causing the few on the east side to be growing less. Add a general fertilizer to help with growth.

5. This caller is applying a fertilizer with 24% Nitrogen every 7 days to her tomato plants. Is this too high of a percentage of Nitrogen for the plants to grow well?

A. The percentage isn’t as important as how much is applied. Applying a fertilizer every 7 days is too often. For most vegetable gardens, fertilizing three times a year will be sufficient. With this high of Nitrogen in the soil the plants will not produce and may grow too large and develop diseases in the deep canopy.

6. A caller had golf ball sized hail a couple of weeks ago that hit his tomato plants. The plants are still growing and have leaves on them. Will they be ok?

A. Yes, they should be fine. Keep them mulched to help reduce competition with weeds and keep them uniformly watered as needed. Don’t fertilize the tomatoes because they are stressed from the storm damage and fertilizing a stressed plant will increase the stress.

7. This caller wondered if grass clippings will negatively affect the soil in his vegetable garden? He had been using the grass clippings for a couple of years and now his vegetable plants don’t look as healthy as before he started using grass clippings.

A. After discussions, the caller said he had been using herbicides on his lawn and using the grass clippings on his garden. Pesticides can have a long residual on the grass clippings and this can negatively affect the plants. Especially if he was using broadleaf herbicides such as 2,4-D for dandelions. Broadleaf herbicides will damage vegetable plants which are all broadleaf plants. It would be best to avoid using his grass clippings if he is to continue using herbicides on his lawn. He can use other types of mulch such as straw, woodchips, newspaper, cardboard, or grass clippings from a neighbor who isn’t using herbicides on his or her lawn.

8. A caller has hollyhocks that have copper colored, round spots on the leaves and the leaves are falling off. What is the problem and what can be done to improve the flowers?

A. This is likely due to hollyhock rust, a common fungus of hollyhocks. Remove the leaves as they develop the disease and destroy the leaves and plant parts removed in the fall cleanup. Fungicides can be used if necessary, such as a liquid copper fungicide.

9. Do weeds need to be controlled in sweet corn or will the plants grow tall enough and shade them out soon?

A. Weeds should always be removed to reduce competition and lead to better overall plant growth. You can hoe the weeds out and use mulch between rows.

10. This caller has squash plants growing in black containers that are growing in potting soil. They are not thriving, what could be the problem?

A. The pot could be getting too hot because it is black. It would be beneficial to add mulch around the container or paint it another color to keep the roots cooler inside. It also could be drought stressed. Plants grown in a container get drought stressed sooner and need to be watered more than those growing in the ground because they have more limited root space. It also might be beneficial to add a general fertilizer to help the plants grow better.

2015-04-15 11.03.06

Kabatina Tip Blight

11. A caller has flagging on cedars that is causing the tips of the branches to turn brown. What would cause this damage to 20 year old cedars?

A. This could be due to bagworms which would be very small yet. Bagworms can be sprayed with any general insecticide. It also could be due to drought stress or Kabatina tip blight. There is no fungicide control for Kabatina. The best management is to cut out the affected areas.

12. This caller has sweet corn growing in his garden. The corn is about 2 feet tall and is now tasseling and it is very light colored. What would cause this problem? He is watering his garden for 1.5-2 hours every night.

A. This is likely due to overwatering. Vegetable gardens need about 1 inch of water per week, watering every night is not necessary and that much water would cause the nutrients to leach down through the soil, which would account for the lighter green coloration. The corn will likely not produce this year since it is already tasseling.

13. A caller wondered if the wood chips being produced from all of the downed trees would be safe to use as mulch around living plants or if there would be an issue with insects in the mulch?

A. This would make a good mulch for your plants. If there was an insect in the trees being chipped, the chipping process will kill it.

14. This caller has grapes that were hit by herbicide drift this spring. The leaves were all the size of a nickel and deformed, but the plants are not pushing new growth. What should they do to help the grape plants make it through this stress? Should they fertilize the plants?

A. Unfortunately, grapes are very sensitive to herbicide drift. 2,4-D can drift about 1/2 miles and Dicamba can drift about 1 mile, so it can move from a long way and grapes will be the first to know. If these are mature plants and they are pushing new growth, they should be fine. Don’t fertilize the plants, this will add more stress to the situation. Keep them well watered to help them through.

15. A maple tree was recently hit by hail. Now the trunk and branches have wounds on them. Should anything be done to cover these wounds?

A. No, don’t apply anything to the tree or cover the wounds with anything. Allow the tree to go through it’s normal processes to seal up the damage to reduce decay further into the trees.

16. A caller has cantaloupe plants that are not growing well. They have very small leaves but they are flowering already. What can be done to help them grow better? They are growing in a garden with many other vegetable crops that are growing much better.

A. Remove the flowers that are developing on such a small plant. When plants try to push flower growth and fruiting, they reduce their growth. Removing the flowers will push the plants to try to grow more before they begin flowering.

17. This caller is growing strawberries that have been growing for a few years. They bloomed and looked healthy this year, but the strawberries produced were very small. What would cause this problem? Also, what will help stop strawberries from rotting if they ripen on the ground?

A. The plants should be thinned at the end of the year to help increase the size of the berries. They also could be dealing with an issue of poor pollination. The cool, wet weather this spring led to low pollination because the bees don’t like to fly in the rain. Poor pollination may lead to development of the fruits, but at a much lower size than normal. Poor pollination can also cause the plant to drop small fruits from the plant before they mature. Mulch the strawberry beds with straw to help keep the berries from laying on the soil and rotting as they mature.

18. A caller from the Geneva area has an ash tree. Should he be treating for Emerald Ash Borer now?

A. No, Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has only been found in Greenwood and Omaha in Nebraska and we recommend waiting until the beetle has been found within 15 miles of your tree before beginning treatments to reduce injury to the trees and to reduce the amount of insecticides in the environment. There is no need to treat for a problem that we don’t have yet.

19. This caller has one apple tree and needs to get a second tree for pollination. What would be a good variety?

A. It is necessary to plant a second variety of apple tree to help increase pollination. Look at the local nurseries to find good choices that go with the variety you already have planted. They will have a chart to show which trees pollinate which.

20. A caller has a fungus in the lawn every year. This fungus shows up in different locations throughout the yard every year and she treats with a fungicide every year. Is there anything she can do to make it so she can stop treating every year?

A. If you see the fungus in your lawn every year, you would need to treat for it earlier in the year before the fungus appears. If the fungus is present before treatments begin, they will not stop the damage that is already present.

*A caller later on the show suggested that these spots may be due to a dog urinating in the lawn, which can cause brown spots similar to many of our summer fungal diseases. There is no way to stop the brown spots left after a dog urinates on it, you would need to walk the dog somewhere else to do his or her business.

21. The final caller of the day has tomatoes that are growing well and they are now 3.5 feet tall, however, they have no blossoms on the plant. What would cause this?

A. This would be due to high Nitrogen levels in the soil. It cannot be fixed at this time, but don’t add any additional fertilizer to the garden for a couple of years to bring the level back down.

Yard and Garden: May 12, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 12, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dr. Paul Read, Viticulture Specialist from UNL

1. The first caller of the day called to ask when is the best time to take cuttings from grape vines and how should it be completed?

A: To take a cutting, when you cut off the dormant growth from the previous year, you can take those branches and put them in moist sand to get them to root. After the last spring frost of the year, you can plant those rooted branches outdoors. When you do this method, you need 2-3 buds on each branch. Put at least 1 bud into the ground and have 1-2 buds out of the ground for leaf growth. At this time of the year, you can complete the layering method of propagation. For layering, just bury a few of the longer branches that are still attached to the vine. Once they root, you can cut them from the main plant and replant somewhere else.

2. A caller has a 7 year old peach tree that is dropping leaves like it is fall. What would be causing this to happen and can it be corrected?

A: This could be abiotic stress due to unfavorable environmental conditions. It could also be from peach tree borer. Look along the trunk for small borer holes or sap oozing from branches or the trunk to know if it is the borer. If borers, spray the trunk with a fruit tree insecticide spray. If it doesn’t seem to be from insects, keep the tree healthy through a good mulch ring and regular watering as needed when natural rains are infrequent.

3. This caller has 2 concord grapes that were producing well last year but were taken by the birds before they could be harvested. How can you keep these birds away?

A: Bird netting over the plants to keep the birds out is the only good, effective method of managing birds in grapes.

This caller also wanted to know what is wrong with her peach trees? She has 2 peach trees that are 9-10 years old that now have an orange sap oozing from the trunk.

A: This would be from gummosis, a fungal disease common on peach trees. There is no real cure for this disease, it is just best to prune out the small branches that are affected and cut 6-8 inches below the infected area. Dip your pruners into a bleach/water solution between cuts to prevent further spread of the disease. It could also be from peach tree borers. In that case, use an insecticide labeled for use on peaches for borers.

4. A caller has a row of cottonwoods but there is one tree in the middle that always has yellow leaves rather than green leaves. What is wrong with it and can it be corrected?

A: This is most likely due to an iron deficiency in this tree. That can be corrected by having a certified arborist come in to do a trunk injection. The granules or stakes around the tree are not very effective. Often, iron chlorosis is a sign of other problems with the tree and may be the beginning of the end for the tree. That being said, many of our trees live many years after developing an iron deficiency and some just need an iron injection every 5+ years to live a long and happy life.

Tree hole for blog

Photo of the damage occurring to the Maple tree.

5. A caller has some maples that were recently pruned and the branches had a fungus and some white powdery substance in them when the branches were removed. What is wrong with them and do they need to be removed?

A: This caller emailed me with photos of the problem so I could see for sure what is wrong with the plants and if it can be corrected or if it is a safety issue. Unfortunately, this does look like decay in the tree. Decay within the interior of the tree can be dangerous for when it may fall, the tree is not stable when it has decay. I would guess that the tree has a large limb that was removed at one time and it was too big or improperly cut and now there is a large hole leading into the tree. I would get a certified arborist out to take a look and possibly remove the tree.

6. This caller has a cedar windbreak and would like to plant crabapples. Can crabapple trees grow near a cedar tree?

A: Yes, you can plant crabapple trees near cedars, just make sure that you select a variety that is resistant to cedar-apple rust to avoid having to spray annually to avoid the damage from cedar-apple rust.

7. A caller has a blue spruce tree that is 8 feet tall and was planted 14 years ago that died over the winter months. What happened and how can it be avoided in the other trees in the row?

A: This could be due to a canker which is a fungal disease that stops the flow of water and nutrients from the canker point outward and upward through the tree. If the canker occurred on the lower part of the trunk it would cause the tree to die. There is no cure for canker and no way to prevent it. It could also be due to a root issue that could have happened when the tree was planted or in the nursery. The tree may have a root that girdled the stem killing the tree or it may have been planted to deeply. When you remove the tree, look at the root system to see if this was the problem.

8. This caller has small brown circles in the lawn all around a tree. This problem occurs every year later in the summer in the same location of the lawn. What would be causing this and can it be controlled?

A: This is most likely due to summer patch, a common lawn fungal disease that occurs in the mid-late summer. Normally, this isn’t something that is treated for because it doesn’t occur in the same location every year, but for this caller, it does. Management practices in the lawn can help, such as mowing higher and doing core aeration to reduce the thatch layer in the lawn. If necessary, fungicides labeled for summer patch can be used from now until the end of June.

Summer Patch, L. Giesler turf update

Summer Patch in Kentucky bluegrass photo by Loren Giesler, UNL Plant Pathology

9. What is a better species selection than using Bradford pear?

A: Chanticleer or Cleveland Select are better options for pear trees than a Bradford Pear. Bradford pears tend to have narrow branch arrangement that leads to more broken branches from high winds and storms. These two options are better choices because their branches are wider when arranged on the trunk.

10. A caller has a maple tree that is half green and half a much lighter green color. What would cause this and can it be corrected?

A: The soil pH is higher on one side. A disturbance on the one side could cause it to have iron deficiency on the lighter green side. Try to spray chelated iron on the lighter green side to fix the problem.

11. When is the best time to start asparagus?

A: Spring is the best time, from March to April is prime time for planting asparagus crowns. Be sure to still wait 3 years before full harvest begins.

12. The final caller of the day had 2 questions. She had botrytis on her strawberries last year and sprayed a week ago. Does she need to spray again? Also, can an Annabel Hydrangea be planted in full sun?

A: For the strawberries, apply from 5-10% bloom until flowers have finished blooming. For more information see the Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide from Midwest Universities including UNL. Annabel Hydrangea is one that prefers partial shade. I would avoid planting it in full sun on the South or West side of a building where it would get too hot.

 

Yard and Garden: July 8, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for July 8, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dr. Paul Read, Viticulture Specialist for Nebraska Extension with Guest Intern Vivian from China

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/9b24 and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1. The first caller of the day wanted to know if they can prune the Cleveland Pear tree that has branches that are low and too tight to the trunk?

A. The best time for pruning a tree like this would be while it is dormant. For a situation like this where the caller is only removing a few branches to help with the growth of the branches and to reduce future problems with the tight branch arrangement it would be fine to remove them now. It would be better to remove branches like this before they break in a storm due to weak attachment to the trunk.

2. A caller has Anjou pear trees that were planted in 2013. Now the bark from the graft union up about 10-12 inches has the bark peeling and now has some black leaves. What would cause this?

A. This would be from sunscald. There is no way to fix sunscald once it occurs. Don’t paint the wound with anything, allow it to heal itself. The black leaves could be due to fireblight. You can cut 6-8 inches past the diseased portion of the limb to cut the fireblight off the tree. The black could also be anthracnose which is not damaging to the plant and there is no need to spray anything for anthracnose.

sunscald-bugwood

Sunscald Photo by William Jacobi, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

3. This caller has an oak tree that is dripping sap on the vehicles parked under it. What would cause this?

A. Aphids feeding on the leaves of trees will excrete honeydew that can drip on vehicles underneath the tree. Aphids are not very damaging and have a lot of predatory insects that feed on them. They can be sprayed with sevin or eight or another general insecticide, but they should fade out on their own with predator insects.

4. A caller has blue spruce trees that look dirty but the tips are still green. What would cause this?

A. This is most likely due to environmental stress from the heat and humidity. If the ends of the branches are still green, the tree will be fine. Make sure your tree has a mulch ring around it and that you keep it well watered in the heat of the summer.

5. This caller has a patch of lilies where a quarter of the patch has only grown to be about 6 inches tall for the past 2 years. The rest of the patch looks good, but this area doesn’t look healthy. Can these be improved?

A. This could be due to hardiness in some varieties that are only suitable for our environment for a couple of years. It also could be due to some bulb mites. It would be a good idea to dig up some of the bulbs to see if they have any damage on the bulbs.

6. A caller has a pine tree with a lot of sap on the branches and the grass in the lawn won’t green up. Why is this?

A. Woodpeckers or insects feeding on a pine tree can cause sap to leak from the wounds left behind. The insects can be controlled with bifenthrin or permethrin (eight). If it is woodpeckers, the damage is minimal and will not cause any problems to the tree. Check how much water the lawn is actually receiving by using catch cans during the water intervals normally followed. Lawns need 1 1/2 inches of water per week. If the water is fine, there are a lot of fungal diseases in the lawn, it could be one of those. Fungal diseases in the home lawn are usually sporadic and therefore don’t require fungicide applications.

7. This caller lives on an acreage surrounded by farmground. She is considering growing grapes on this large plot of land. Are grapes easy to grow and would grapes have a benefit to the wildlife in the area?

A. Grapes are a large commitment, especially if you plan to sell products from them. You can be successful with only a few plants for the family to use for grape production. A few good choices for this area would include Frotenac or Valiant. The first year the grapes would need extra care, but after that they would be more self-sustaining. Deer will feed on the foliage. If you decide to grow your grapes for commercial use, register  your acreage with the driftwatch website at  www.fieldwatch.com to help avoid problems from drift since grapes are very sensitive to drift damage.

8. A caller has strawberries that were planted and now have very small fruits and the plants are not making runners.

A. Everbearing strawberries are typically very small for fruit size. You might try planting some newer varieties that are June bearing to get larger fruits. Some good choices would include honeoye or albion or sparkle.

9. This caller has an ash tree that is 7 years old and the tree snapped off in the wind. There is mold in the trunk and it is suckering. What can be done to plant a new tree?

A. You can get a company to come in and grind out the stump or rent a stump grinder to do it yourself. The suckers that keep growing back will continue to for a few years, they can be cut out and treated with a roundup or 2,4-D product. You can plant a new tree within just a few feet of the old tree, since this wasn’t a very large tree yet.

10. A facebook photo came in with a odd structure that appeared by a tree. What is this?

A. This would be a stinkhorn fungus. They are not harmful to the plants growing in the area. There is not control other than mechanical removal of the fungus. Do not eat these as they are not edible, they would be a poisonous mushroom.

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Stinkhorn Fungus

11. The last caller of the day has tomatoes in a raised bed. When they ripen for harvest, the end of the tomato seems blighted. What would cause this?

A. This is blossom end rot. It is a calcium deficiency that develops in our plants in drought situations because calcium is only available to plants after it has been dissolved in water. There is no control for this, it should only last for a few weeks early in the growing season and then the plants should grow out of it.