Yard and Garden: June 29, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 29, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Roch Gaussoin, Extension Specialist from UNL

1. The first caller of the day has green worms on her tomato plants. How can she get rid of them?

A. This is a tomato hornworm, a common pest in vegetable gardens. Tomato hornworms can easily be controlled by picking them off and throwing them into a bucket of soapy water or sprayed with sevin or eight.

2. A walk-in listener has buffalograss that is turning a reddish/brown color and dying in patches throughout the lawn. What is wrong with the lawn?

A. This is a disease called bipolaris leaf spot disease. The lawn should grow out of it. Adding 1 pound of Nitrogen fertilizer per 1,000 square feet would help reduce the problems with this disease. Check the lawn for chinch bugs as well, if they are also found, treat for them with insecticides.

This listener also wondered if his lawn should be mowed?

A. With buffalograss, it depends on what you desire from your lawn to determine whether you mow or not. It will be beneficial to mow the lawn at least once per year. Mowing one time per month will help thicken up the lawn overall for a better, fuller look.

3. A caller has poison oak growing up a tree. The root is next to the trunk of the tree, can it be cut off and the stump treated with Tordon?

A. Do not use Tordon in this situation. Tordon is not labeled for use in a landscape setting and it would likely kill the tree as well due to the proximity to the roots of the weed. Tordon is a mobile chemical and it can get from one root easily to another. It would be best to get the weed identified first as well, poison oak is not common here in Nebraska. It is likely that it is woodbine or poison ivy. Woodbine is not harmful to the tree. If still desired to kill the vine, use the “glove of death” which is when you wear a chemical-resistant glove and then put a cloth glove over that. Then, dip a few fingers of the gloved hand into Brush killer or Glyphosate and rub those fingers along the stem and leaves of the undesired plant to kill it.

4. This caller drilled a grass prairie this spring. Now, the grass really isn’t growing, it is mainly weeds. Should he mow it now or how can he proceed to get the grasses growing and kill off the weeds?

A. It is common for new prairies to struggle for the first 1-2 years. Mowing will reduce the weed presence and will thicken the stand of grass that is present. Be patient, it just takes time to get these native grasses really growing.

5. A caller has wild asparagus that he would like to move. When is the best time to transplant it?

A. Spring would be the best time. However, it would be more beneficial and less work to just kill off the asparagus that is growing in the wrong location and planting new crowns in the new location. There are newer, better, hardier varieties available now. Transplanting does not speed up the time to harvest over new crowns. Either way, transplanting or planting new crowns, it is recommended to wait 3 years before heavy harvest of the asparagus to ensure the roots get growing well before harvest begins.

6. This caller planted poatoes, corn, tomatoes, and onions. The leaves are now curling on some of the plants. They added horse manure this spring for compost. Did the manure contain herbicides that are now causing the damage?

A. This could be herbicide drift from nearby fields. Herbicides could be a contaminant in fresh manure, not as likely through composted manure. Be careful when using manure for food safety measures. Fresh manure should never be applied right at planting time. If using fresh manure, it should be applied in the fall to ensure any harmful bacteria breaks down before plants produce fruit that could come in to contact with the bacteria in the soil. Composted manure can be applied in the spring at planting because the composting process would break down the bacteria.

7. A caller planted 35 blue spruce trees this spring. Do they need to fertilize them? Do they need to water them?

A. Fertilizer is not necessary. Typically in Nebraska soils, the main nutrients for tree growth are found and are accessible. Water the trees about 1 inch of water per week. If we are not receiving that through rain, it needs to be given through irrigation. A soaker hose or sprinkler or even a 5 gallon bucket with a small hole drilled in the bottom would work to irrigate these trees.

8. This caller has grasshoppers in their garden and plans to spray sevin for them. Is there a better time of day to spray for grasshoppers?

A. Grasshoppers can be sprayed at anytime of day. However, it is important to spray grasshoppers while they are still small, they are easier to kill when they are younger. Also, make sure to spray the roadsides and ditches where the grasshoppers tend to congregate as well as the areas where they are damaging your plants. For more information on grasshoppers, see this Guide to Grasshopper Control in Yards and Gardens

9. How do you manage ground squirrels in the lawn?

A. Trapping is most effective. For information on 13-lined ground squirrels and how to manage them, check out this NebGuide.

10. A caller has poppies that are growing wild in her gardens. What can be done to control them?

A. Spot spray or carefully paint herbicide on the leaves of the poppy plants or use the chemical-resistant glove, cloth glove method listed in question #3. Roundup would be ok for this time of year. 2,4-D can be used in the fall, but not now with fear of volatilization to your garden plants.

This caller also asked how to move volunteer cedars that are coming up throughout her lawn? She wants to add them to her deteriorating windbreak.

A. Cedars are fairly resilient and easy to transplant. Since they  are still small, just dig up the small trees and get as much of the root as possible and replant them in the desired location. It would be better to wait until the fall to do this because moving them now will be hard to keep them alive in the heat of the summer. Make sure to keep the plants watered well throughout their transition period. They don’t need much water but would need it more often if they are very small because they don’t have a large root system.

2018-06-29 11.05.53
Purslane

11. Another walk-in listener has a fleshy weed that they found in their garden. What is the weed and how can it be controlled?

A. This is purslane. It is a common weed in our lawns and gardens. Purslane easily reproduces from cuttings so avoid hoeing or weed trimming through it while leaving pieces of the plant laying around on the ground throughout the garden. Purslane doesn’t like to be smothered, so a heavy mulch layer on the weed will help.

12. A caller passing through on the road wants to know how to control trees in pastures? They have been trying using 2,4-D with little success.

A. Cut off the trees and do a stump treatment with something stronger than 2,4-D such as a triclopyr product which is found in the brush killers. In a pasture, you could use tordon in this scenario to control the trees. Don’t use tordon if there are other desired broadleaf plants such as wildflowers or other trees nearby.

13. This caller has an Autumn Blaze Maple that is turning yellowish. He applied iron granules but they don’t seem to have much of an effect on the tree. What can be done?

A. Trunk injections of iron work better than granules. The trunk injections will also last for 4-6 years rather than just one year with the granules. Trunk injections of iron need to be done by a certified arborist.

14. A caller has potatoes that are growing on top but are not developing tubers. Not all varieties are affected the same. What is the problem?

A. The quick transition from cold to hot and the long-term heat this summer may have caused the plants to not produce the tubers as well. Some varieties may be better suited to deal with the heat which would explain the differences between varieties.

15. The last caller of the day wants to know if Linden would be a good replacement for Ash trees as the Emerald Ash Borer moves closer and when to transplant cherry trees?

A. Linden is a great replacement tree for ash. It would be a good idea to start the linden nearby now and remove the ash when it dies or when the linden begins to take off. Transplanting trees is best in the spring or fall. So for this year, wait until mid-September or later.

Yard and Garden: April 6, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 6, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Jonathan Larson, Douglas/Sarpy County Extension Educator in Entomology and Jody Green, Lancaster County Extension Educator in Entomology

1.The first caller of the show has little blue flowers in her lawn. How can she get rid of them?

A. This is likely speedwell, it is a winter annual plant so it blooms very early in the spring then dies with warmer weather. At this point, since it is already blooming, just leave it as it will die soon and the seed is already set for next year. Spray it with a 2,4-D product late next fall after it has germinated or use a pre-emergent herbicide in the earlier fall before it germinates.

2. What is the correct mowing height?

A. 2.5-3.5 inches is the recommended mowing height for cool season turf in Nebraska. Too low will lead to more weed pressure and insect and disease issues because the turf cannot compete with these pests when it is too short. Make sure you mow enough to mow off only 1/3 of the turf blade each time you mow to avoid scalping the turf.

3. A caller asked if the treatments for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) were killing the trees?

A. The most effective treatment methods for EAB are trunk injections, which can harm the tree. However, the tree can take about 10 treatments before stressing the tree to the point of death. If you are using Emamectin benzoate as the trunk injection chemical, the tree will only need to be treated every 2-3 years, giving it 20-30 years of injections before harm occurs. For the first few years of treatments, you may be able to use a soil drench rather than a trunk injection, again adding more time with your tree. A soil drench will work, but once the tree grows to 15-20 Diameter, the soil drench is not as effective. In the 20-30 years of treatments, you can get a very good start on a new tree nearby the ash tree to have a well-established tree growing in it’s place for when the ash tree needs to be removed.

Termites
Termites, Photo from the University of Nebraska Department of Entomology

4. Does wood mulch attract termites?

A. If the wood mulch is piled up so high to where the mulch is touching wood siding, it can be a pathway for the termites to enter the home. However, mulch is recommended to only be 2-3 inches deep and most concrete foundations will go higher than that. Also, if you have had termites in the past, you should be working with a pest control company for termite control and the chemicals will manage the termites from the mulch. You will not get termites from mulch, the mulch is cut up too small and termites will dry out in that condition, so that cannot happen.

5. This caller is replanting a windbreak. They have begun with an outside row of cedars and would like to know what to plant on the interior rows?

A. An interior row with multiple types of trees is best. Diversity will help your windbreak survive better if another disease or insect problem comes in to kill evergreen trees like pine wilt has. Good evergreen choices include blue spruce, black hills spruce, concolor fir, Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white pine, and Norway spruce. You can even add in deciduous trees like oaks or maples to fill in as well.

6. A caller wants to know how to control poison hemlock on the edge of his field?

A. 2,4-D and Dicamba in a mix. This mixture is found in the product called Trimec as well as others. It is best to treat the poison hemlock while it is in the rosette stage, so early spring or fall. Do not allow cattle access to the dry matter after this has been sprayed.

7. This caller wants to know if fertilizer is needed to trees as they plant a new windbreak?

A. Fertilizer is not necessary for trees planted in Nebraska. Our soils typically have plenty of nutrients available for use by the trees. It wouldn’t hurt to add fertilizer at planting, but it isn’t necessary.

8. The final caller of the day wants to know how to plant a new asparagus patch?

A. Asparagus is a great plant for a home garden. Many people want to get plant starts from a neighbor to start their patch, but it is best to just purchase a new set of crowns. When planting asparagus crowns, dig a trench 8-12 inches deep and bury the crowns only under 2 inches of soil. As the plants poke up through the soil, add more soil until the soil is level. Avoid harvesting asparagus until the third season of growth to allow the crowns enough time for root production. For weed control, mulch is best, such as wood chips or grass clippings. Preen that is labeled for use around asparagus can be used in the spring to prevent annual weeds from germinating. In late May to early June, when finished harvesting asparagus for the year, you can break all the spears off below ground, leaving no green growth above ground, and spray glyphosate or Roundup over the bed to reduce weeds. After this, allow the plants to grow back up and produce ferns which will produce seed and help your patch grow. You can cut it back in the fall or in the spring before new growth begins.

Spring Lawncare

Spring Lawncare, blog post

April is finally here, which means spring should be bringing in warmer weather. April is a good time to get out and start working in the lawn and garden to prepare our yards. To help ensure that you have the best lawn on the block, here are few tips to improve your lawn this spring.

April is a great time to overseed your lawn. If you had some spots that were flooded out last spring, now is a great time to get some new seed planted. The beginning part of April is best for seeding lawns, but it can be done until the end of the month. Frequent, light irrigation is necessary to keep newly seeded lawns moist. It may be necessary to water twice a day to keep it from drying out and dying. Straw mulch can be applied to keep the seedbed moist, but it is not necessary and can bring problems with weed seed that is often a contaminant of straw. Do not apply any pesticides to newly seeded lawn until you have completed 2-3 mowings. Also, do not try to overseed right before or right after applying crabgrass preventer as this chemical will prevent the germination of your desired grasses as well.

We often face difficulties with weeds in our lawns. The key to weed management is to keep your lawn healthy to avoid weed infestations and to identify the weed before chemical controls are used. Many of our herbicides are specific to either a grass weed or a broadleaf weed and won’t work on the other weed type. Also, you need to know the weed to know the lifecycle for when the best time is to manage that weed with a chemical. As I stated in my previous news column, henbit is a winter annual and should only be chemically controlled in the lawn in the fall, the spring is too late.

crabgrass, Joseph Berger, Bugwood
Crabgrass Photo By: Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org

Crabgrass pre-emergent herbicides need to be applied before crabgrass germinates, which is when the soil temperature is 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit. This typically occurs toward the end of April. Applying this chemical too soon may cause the chemical to stop working earlier in the season when crabgrass may still be germinating. In this case an additional application may be necessary later in the spring, so it is best to wait until the correct time to only have to apply this one time per season. Broadleaf weeds, such as dandelions, clover, and ground ivy should be controlled in the fall for best control but can be managed in the spring with 2,4-D products.

Fertilizing turf can be done up to 4 times per growing season. Apply fertilizers at a rate of 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet for each application. A good trick for remembering when to apply fertilizers is to fertilize with the holidays: Arbor Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, and Halloween.

Mower Collage

We are now getting to the time of year when we will have to start mowing our lawns. Prepare your lawn mower for the season before you start mowing. Start by sharpening the blades. Dull mowing blades can cause tearing to occur on the grass blades rather than a smooth cut. These tears can lead to more insect and disease problems. Change the oil in your lawn mower, if you didn’t do that in the fall. Check your spark plugs and tire pressure. Finally, make sure you clean under the deck for any grass that may still be stuck under there from last season. You can start mowing as soon as the grass starts growing. Remember to mow at a height of 2.5-3.5 inches and only cut off 1/3 of the grass blade each time you mow.

Spring Lawncare

2011-10-27 10.05.27Each year in the spring, we tend to get very excited to be able to get back outside and work in our lawns and gardens. However, this is still fairly early in the year to do much work in our yards. This article was written to prepare you for when the best time is to begin lawncare activities in the spring.

Overseeding our lawns can take place between April 1 and April 30 for the cool season turfgrasses, such as Kentucky bluegrass and turf-type tall fescue. If you are planting a new warm season lawn or are adding plugs to thicken it up, you should wait until late May through June to do that. The warm season grasses would be either Buffalograss or Zoysiagrass. These would be the four best turfgrasses to use in our lawns in Southeast Nebraska.

When purchasing grass seed, watch for the following important statements on the seed bag:

  • Purchase weed free seed, 0.3% or less weed seed in the package
  • No noxious weeds found in the seed mixture
  • Avoid purchasing lawn seed that is advertised in the Sunday newspaper, as those are not usually good seed choices and are not suited well for our area
  • Avoid purchasing lawn seed that contains annual ryegrass as that is more of a weed species

The best seed choices are either:

  • 100% of turf-type tall fescue
  • Kentucky bluegrass
  • Buffalograss
  • A mixture of tall fescue and bluegrass

Mowing your lawn should begin as your lawn begins to grow again. We should mow our lawns to a height of at least 2” for Kentucky bluegrass and 2.5-3” for tall fescue. So, you can wait until the lawn gets to at least 3 inches before beginning the mowing routine in the spring. Remember, only mow off 1/3 of the grass each time that you mow. The lawn clippings may be left on the lawn or bagged and removed from the lawn, at your own discretion. If you return the clippings back to the turf, it will add up to 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet over the course of the growing season. This can account to one fertilizer application for your lawn over the growing season.  Below is a picture of the 3 types of lawn mowers you can purchase.

Mower Collage

As for the fertilization, this should also wait until later in the spring. It is recommended to add 1.0 pound of fertilizer per 1,000 square feet between April 20th and May 10th. This fertilization should be done with a slow release fertilizer of your choosing. Fertilization of Kentucky bluegrass can be applied 4 more times throughout the growing season. To make this easier to remember, fertilizer treatments should be done on Arbor Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, and Halloween. As for tall fescue lawns, these only need to be fertilized two times a year, in the early spring and late fall. We should avoid fertilization during the hot summer months to avoid possibly burning the grass blades. The spring fertilization can be done in combination with a pre-emergent herbicide that will combat crabgrass, foxtail, sandburs and goosegrass. Do not use crabgrass pre-emergent herbicides if you have overseeded in the spring until you have mowed your new seedlings at least 3 times. Dandelion and other winter annual weeds can be treated in combination with the Labor Day fertilizer treatment for best control.

Fertilizer Spreader, Photo from Acreage.unl.edu