Yard and Garden: May 31, 2019

Yard & Garden blog, 2019

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 31, 2019. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 2, 2019. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Kyle Broderick, Plant Pathology Extension Educator, UNL

1. The first caller of the show wants to know how to control sandburs without chemicals to avoid harming birds and squirrels?

A. Sandburs can be controlled with pre-emergent grass herbicides in the spring or post-emergent herbicides for grasses such as Roundup after they have germinated later in the spring. All pesticides are approved by the EPA to ensure safety for wildlife and birds as long as they are handled correctly, but it is a personal preference for use of chemicals. Integrated Pest Management should always be used to help be the most effective and to be the most economical. For sandburs, hoeing or hand pulling can be effective to keep seed from producing for next year. Also, if you can get something else to grow in that area, that will help to outcompete with the sandburs. If the soil is compacted and sandy, where sandburs prefer, it might be better to add organic matter to the soil to improve the growing location for turf or other plants.

2. This caller wants to know how to get rid of carpenter bees?

A. Carpenter bees are a good pollinator insect. If they aren’t damaging the structure of a building, they can be left alone. However, if they are digging into framing for a shed or other building, filling the holes in with wood putty should work. Otherwise, you can spray a little sevin in the holes as well. You might also try putting up a Bee Hotel that may be more desirable to them than the structure of your building. View this article on Carpenter Bees for more information. View this NebGuide on Creating a Solitary Bee Hotel to learn how to build and place a bee hotel on your property.

India Meal moth sitting on wall with rule for size comparison.

Indian Meal Moth Adult by a Ruler. Photo by Vicki Jedlicka, Extension Assistant

3. An insect was brought in for identification and control methods.

A. This insect is an Indian Meal Moth, a common pantry pest. This could have been brought in with foods purchased at the grocery store. Be sure to store all products containing cereal, grain, rice, flour, or pasta in air tight, insect proof containers such as canisters or Tupperware containers. Things like cake mixes or flour can be stored in the freezer. Clean up all cabinet shelves from crumbs. Discard infested food products. For more information on Pantry Pests, visit this website from Lancaster County Extension.

4. A caller has spots in the yard with a small depression that has a powdery material and what looks like the remnants of a mushroom. What causes this and can it be controlled?

A. This could be from a puffball. Puffballs are a type of mushroom that when they become mature many spores will puff out of the structure that does not have a stalk like traditional mushrooms. After it has puffed, the pieces left behind are leathery and dark brown to black in color. Puffballs can get into a lawn from low fertility and from decaying tree roots or other organic matter. Maintain good lawn care practices and maintain adequate Nitrogen fertilizer that will help to break down woody tissues. Dig out the puffballs as they are seen in the area.

5. This caller has a maple tree that had a great deal of seeds dropped this spring. Now, there are millions of tiny maple seedlings growing in the lawn. What can be done to kill these seedlings off?

A. In the lawn, just continue to mow, the maple tree saplings will not be able to continually regrow and will die. In a garden setting, it would be best to hand pull or hoe out the seedlings. In a garden, careful applications of Roundup could be used as long as desirable plants are not sprayed. Mulch will also help to kill off the seedlings in garden locations.

6. Are bagworms out yet?

A. No, they haven’t been seen emerging yet. We are behind a little this year due to the cooler weather. Be checking often for emergence in your trees.

7. A caller has an ash tree that had green balls develop last year on the tree. They are still on the tree, what can be done about these? Should she be treating for Emerald Ash Borer?

A. The green ball structures are from an ash flower gall. This gall is from tiny eriophyid mites that feed on the flowers in the early spring. These galls can stay on the tree for more than one season, so these on her tree are likely from last year. Treatment is not necessary because these galls are an aesthetic issue and will not harm the tree. If treating the tree, sprays with sevin could be done in the early spring as the flowers develop. As for Emerald Ash Borer, it is best to wait until the borer is found within 15 miles of the tree to prevent excess damage to the tree and to avoid using chemicals for an insect that hasn’t been found in the area. Watch for signs of EAB in your tree and consult an arborist or your local Extension Office if you see these signs. Damage from EAB consists of: top dieback, bark falling off the tree, D-shaped exit holes, increased woodpecker damage, or increased suckering at the base of the tree.

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Yard and Garden: May 24, 2019

Yard & Garden blog, 2019

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 24, 2019. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 2, 2019. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Donnie Engelhardt, Assistant Manager of the Little Blue NRD

1. The first caller of the show has what he suspects is foxtail in his lawn. He has used pre-emergent crabgrass control and it has not helped. How can he control it? He is also having trouble with zoysia grass on the east side of his house where this foxtail is growing. What can he do to improve zoysia?

A. If this is foxtail, crabgrass pre-emergent herbicides should work on it. I would assume that it may be something else if that didn’t work. This could be little barley, which is a winter annual weed that would be seeding now while the foxtail would not be yet. Little barley is often confused with foxtail, especially this time of the year. For more information on little barley, visit this article on Little Barley from Turf.unl.edu

As for the zoysia grass not growing, there could be a lot of issues with this. If it is on the East side of the house, it may not be enough sunlight for zoysia. Since this is a warm season grass, it is very crucial that the grass gets enough light and it is warm enough for best growth. Also, fertilization schedules would be quite different from cool season turf. Zoysia grass should only be fertilized in the summer months. Warm season grasses really only need up to 2 fertilizer applications per year, if any. Fertilize in later May-June and again in July-August. If fertilizing in the spring and fall, this can harm the zoysia grass.

2. A caller wants to plant either a peach tree or a cherry tree. Which will be better and do either of them get cedar-apple rust?

A. Neither peaches nor cherries will get cedar-apple rust. If you are planning on planting just one, for the growing conditions in southeast Nebraska, you would have more luck with a cherry tree. Peaches are not long lived in Nebraska due to our weather conditions. According to John Porter, Nebraska Extension Educator, “Peaches often have cracking due to rapid freezing and thawing. It can be pretty severe when the fluctuations are large and often. This leads to the gummosis and also damage/death of branches.  Its one of the reasons peaches aren’t well suited for Nebraska.” If cherry trees are chosen, tart cherries are best. Bing and other sweet cherry types will not grow in Nebraska.

3. This caller wants to know when he can plant his asparagus?

A. Asparagus is typically planted in the early spring with other spring crops such as broccoli and carrots. However, with the weather as cool as it has been, it would still be fine to plant it this year. Get it in the ground soon and make sure that the soil remains evenly moist in the hot, dry part of the summer.

4. A caller has an established wind break but mowing now is difficult. Can he prune the branches up so he can mow under the tree without damaging it?

A. Trimming dead branches around the bottom of the tree would be fine, don’t go too high or it will not be as effective as a windbreak. If the branches are still alive and full with needles all the way to the ground, it wouldn’t need to be mowed because the turf will die under that condition.

This caller also wondered about using a granule on the ground around trees to control bagworms?

A. The granule chemical controls he is referring to would be those containing imidacloprid. Bagworms are not a listed ‘pest controlled’ on the imidacloprid label so it is not a legal practice to use it on them. It is best to stick with chemicals such as Bt or Tempo for control of bagworms. Spray them when the bags are up to 1/2 inch in length for best control. I would assume that will be a little later this year due to the cooler spring.

5. What are the benefits of letting asparagus seed out?

A. Asparagus is a perennial crop that needs to have the season of growth to build a bigger, stronger plant. All of our plants need time to grow and build sugars for root expansion. Since we cut off all the asparagus through the beginning of the season, we need to allow them to grow through the rest of the summer.

6. Is it too late to plant strawberries or summer bulbs?

A. It is best to plant strawberries in the early spring. They could still be planted yet this year, but some varieties may not produce this year. Planting this late would cause problems getting the plants established, so be sure to mulch them and water them frequently until they are established. June bearing varieties would be past the bloom time and would not produce this year, but you could plant them to get them established so you can have a harvest next year. If planting everbearing this late, they may still produce later this summer. It would be best to cut off early season flowers that may develop to allow the plants to become more established before harvesting later in the summer after the plants are more established. Summer bulbs are best planted after the chance of frost for the year has passed. You would be past that now and still be in good time to get the bulbs into the ground. It will be later before they start to bloom, though.

green-asparagus-pixabay7. A caller wanted to know what type of manure would be best for asparagus fertilization?

A. Cow, chicken, or pig are good manure options for the vegetable garden, asparagus included. Fresh manure should be applied in the fall to allow time for the bacteria in it to break down before harvesting. For food safety guidelines, fresh manure needs to be applied 120 days prior to harvest, which means the fall in Nebraska. If it is composted manure, it would be fine in the spring.

8. This caller has apple trees. Last year the apples turned moldy while they were still on the tree. What would cause this?

A. There are a lot of different types of diseases that can lead to moldy apples. It could be from apple scab, sooty mold, powdery mildew, or black rot. Using an orchard fruit tree spray through the season would help reduce these diseases. Also, be sure to clean up infected fruits and leaves at the end of the season to reduce the incidence of disease from one year to the next.

9. A caller wants to transplant some foot-tall cedars from his pasture. Is it too late or can this still be done now?

A. It is getting quite late in the year to transplant trees. The concern is for when the shift from spring-like weather to summer hot, dry weather will occur. Typically June starts getting very hot and dry and a newly transplanted tree would not have any root system to get water if it gets dry. It might be better now to wait until fall, September or October. If the trees will be moved to a location where they will be watered adequately, it would be ok, but for best results now, it would be advised to wait until cooler temperatures return in the fall.

10. This caller has a lawn that is thin and weeds are starting to take over. When should he reseed this lawn? Would it be better to just kill it all off and start from scratch?

A. At this point in the year, it would be best to wait until the fall to overseed or reseed lawns. The turf will come up but it will likely get too hot and dry for it this summer, which will be here before we know it. It would be best to just overseed and thicken up the grass that is already established rather than kill it all off and start over. Starting from scratch takes a lot of time and it can be quite difficult. It would be easier to already have something covering the ground while you overseed to keep the weeds down. If weeds are a problem, you can use a mesotrione product, often found in Tenacity, at seeding this fall to kill the weeds when you overseed.

11. A caller wants to know if you can prune a magnolia now to reduce growth? Also, can the suckers around the base of the tree be removed now?

A. Yes, the magnolia hasn’t produced flower buds for next year yet, so it would be fine. Suckers can be removed anytime through the season. Suckers are growth that takes energy from the tree and have no real purpose so it would be best to remove those as they grow before they get too big.

12. Can a bee house still be hung outside yet this spring or is it too late to get much activity?

A. Yes, you would still be fine. These solitary bees are still out moving around. For next year, it would be better to have it out in April. For information on building your own solitary bee hotel, visit this NebGuide

13. The last caller of the day has apricot trees that are just for wildlife consumption. These fruits have not yet fully developed but many of them fell to the ground in storms recently. Her dog is now eating those fruits that have fallen. Is that toxic for dogs to eat them?

A. After discussion with a local veterinarian, the pit is the part of the apricot or peach that would be toxic to the dogs. If these are immature apricots, the pit would not be developed and it shouldn’t harm the dogs. That being said, it might be best to clean up these dropped fruits to be safest.

Yard and Garden: May 10, 2019

Yard & Garden blog, 2019

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 10, 2019. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 2, 2019. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Kevin Christiansen, Horticulture Instructor at SCC Beatrice & Chelsea Tietjen, Agronomy and Entomology Instructor at SCC Beatrice

1. The first caller of the show wants to know when to start spraying his apple trees with the orchard fruit tree spray? He also wants to know if it is too hot here to grow cabbage because it is hard to get a harvest?

A. Orchard fruit tree sprays will combat both insect and disease problems on fruit trees. Sprays should begin as soon as pink is seen in the buds, but should cease during blooming. Since this caller hasn’t begun spraying yet, it would be fine to just start as the blossoms are falling off the tree. You want to allow the pollinators to come to the tree without harming them, so no sprays should be done while the trees are blooming. This spray should be applied every 10-14 days through the growing season, up until harvest.

As for the cabbage, it should be fine growing here, but some years it can get hot quickly and that can cause our cool season crops to bolt. Cabbage may be better grown in the fall due to the quick warm up in spring that usually happens here in Nebraska. For more information on growing cabbage, visit this article from Lancaster County Extension.

2. This caller was wondering if we would see bagworms later this year than most years due to the colder weather? He also wondered what is the best control for them and when to control them?

A. It is likely that we will see bagworms a little later this year due to the cooler spring we have had. They will hatch at different times in the year because their hatch is weather dependent. Starting in late May, check weekly for the small bags to begin to show up on the trees. When the small bags show up and until they are up to 1/2 inch in length you can spray. Tempo or Bt would be best for control.

3. A caller has lilacs that were planted 2 years ago. They were a small cutting at 1 inch tall when they were planted and now they are only 4-6 inches tall. What fertilizer can he use to get these to grow faster?

A. Mulch would be a better option for these plants since they are so small. This would protect them from weed competition and from accidentally being mowed over and would do much more for the plants than fertilizer would. It would also be a good idea to put a fence up around them to prevent rabbits from chewing them off since they are so small.

4. This caller has cedar-apple rust that is showing up on his cedars. He has sprayed his apple trees, but does he also need to remove the galls from the cedars?

A. The galls will not hurt the cedars and as long as you sprayed the apple trees, that should be sufficient. Pulling the galls off won’t stop the disease for future years because the spores can spread up to 2 miles so they will come from other cedar trees.

5. A caller has a rhubarb plant that is flowering and not producing the stalks for consumption. What can be done to improve stalk production?

A. Cut the flower stalks off at the bottom of the stalk. These flower stalks take energy from the plant. The energy is moved from the leaf production to flower production. The abnormal weather this spring has caused rhubarb to flower more this year than other years.

6. When do you prune snowball bush and lilacs?

A. After they complete blooming this spring, remove 1/3 of the stems at the base of the plant. Remove the largest, least productive canes and leave the smaller, younger, more productive canes.

This caller also wondered what do do for the purple flowering weeds and dandelions in the yard?

A. The purple flowering weeds are henbit. They are a winter annual and will soon die when the temperatures warm up, likely in the next week or so. There is no reason to spray them now. Dandelions are best controlled in the fall with an application of a 2,4-D product. Spray them in the middle of September and the middle of October. The later application in the fall will also help kill henbit as it emerges in the fall to reduce the population for next year.

7. A caller is building a raised bed in his landscape. Does he need to put rock at the bottom to help with drainage?

A. No, it wouldn’t be necessary to add rock to the bottom of a raised bed to help with drainage. Raised beds are built up on the sides with an open bottom. That will be drainage enough for them. Be sure to use good quality soil and some compost, don’t use soil from your yard.

Buckbrush, Steven K. UNL

Buckbrush Photo from Steven Knezevic, Extension Weed Management Specialist, from Cropwatch.unl.edu

8. How do you control buckbrush in the pasture?

A. According to the Guide to Weed Management from Nebraska Extension, 2,4-D will work on buckbrush in the pasture. For more information visit this cropwatch article.

9. This caller has lillies that are not growing well. The daylilies are short and blooming but they are not growing big at all. Other plants in the bed are fine and these daylilies in other locations are growing larger. What is causing the problem?

A. This may be a soil issue. It might be good to do a soil test. It could also be that the soil is compacted more in that location that are constricting the roots and limiting growth. Add some compost to the soil and work it in around the plants to try to reduce the compaction. A general fertilizer could be tried as well. It also could be that the plants are maybe planted a little too deep. It might be helpful to dig up the plants, add compost or manure to the soil, and replant the daylilies a little higher in the soil profile.

10. The last caller of the day had 2 questions. She is rejuvenating her landscape beds, should she use landscape fabric in them? Also, she has a trumpet vine growing on a trellis that has a lot of dead branching in it, what can she do to remove the dead growth and rejuvenate these vines?

A. Landscape fabric is not necessary in the beds. Landscape fabric can restrict the movement of moisture into the soil and harm the plants. Also, soil and weeds can move in on top of the fabric which defeats the purpose of using it. Finally, if you ever want to change that bed in the future, the landscape fabric is very difficult to remove.

As for the trumpet vine, it can be cut back heavily, but it would be best done early next spring rather than now because it is getting a little late this year. Remove the old, unproductive growth and leave the smaller, healthier growth.

Yard and Garden: May 3, 2019

Yard & Garden blog, 2019

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 3, 2019. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 2, 2019. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dick Campbell, Owner of Campbell’s Nursery

1. The first caller of the show has holes in his lawn that are about the size of a pinky, what would cause that?

A. This could be from either earthworms or wolf spiders. Neither of these will harm our lawns, in fact they are both beneficial. Earthworms break up the soil and add compost back into our soil. Spiders will feed on problematic insects.

2. A caller was wondering about a homemade weed killer that has vinegar, dish soap and epsom salt in it?

A. It is not advised to go with homemade weed killers because there is no research to help with rates, timing, PPE, or other environmental and health risks associated with them. It is best to use IPM to control pests using mechanical and cultural practices first then turn to pesticides that have been approved from the EPA.

3. This caller is having difficulty with a redbud that isn’t blooming. It is 6-7 years old and in full sun, but it isn’t blooming yet. Why is that and can he do anything to get it to bloom?

A. Some varieties of redbuds take a few years before they will start blooming, it could just not be fully mature and ready to bloom yet. Transplant shock can also set the blooming cycle back. It should be over that soon. Also, if it is in an area where the lawn around it is getting a high amount of nitrogen, that could push the tree to leaf out and not push energy into flowering. Give it time and reduce the nitrogen fertilizer applied around the tree.

4. A caller has 2 lilacs. One is blooming fine, while the other is blooming only on 2 branches and the other branches seem to be dead. What can she do about this lilac?

A. A rejuvenation cutting will help to renew this shrub with only 2 live branches. You can cut the entire shrub off at about 6-8 inches above the ground. The new growth will be healthier and it should leaf out better and throughout the whole shrub. It may take a couple of years to rebloom after this rejuvenation cutting, but it will be better in the long-run. Also, be sure to remove any grass growing right up around the trunk of these shrubs. Add a nice 2-3 inch layer of mulch and keep the grass competition out away from the shrubs.

5. What is the best decorative/flowering tree for Nebraska?

A. There isn’t really one that is better than the others, there is a long list of great flowering trees. Crabapples are great spring flowering trees. Make sure that you pick one that is resistant to cedar-apple rust and apple scab. Serviceberries make a great flowering tree or large shrub for any landscape with berries for the birds in the fall. Redbuds are a favorite among many and there is a whitebud which is just a white flowering variety. Magnolias are amazingly beautiful, but they need to be planted in a somewhat protected location to help with flowering in those years with a later frost. Flowering pears can be used, but choose Chanticleer or Cleveland Select to avoid problems with branches breaking due to tight branch crotches.

This caller planted a redbud 6 years ago, but it has since died. What caused that?

A. It turns out that this tree wasn’t purchased from a local source and may have been shipped from the south, which was common with redbuds a few years ago. Once they were moved into Nebraska, they couldn’t tolerate the conditions that were so much different from where they were started and sourced, which was typically the South. This is why it is best to purchase trees from a local grower or a grower that is at the same latitude or further north than where the tree will be grown.

6. Where can you get buffalograss seed or plugs?

A. Campbell’s nursery has both seed and plugs available for purchase, as does Stock Seed Farms in Murdock, Nebraska. Buffalograss is a warm-season grass and shouldn’t be planted until late spring so later May would be ideal. It can be seeded until mid-August so long as irrigation is provided to help with establishment. Soil temperatures need to be 60 degrees F before buffalograss seed will germinate. Plugs should be planted at this time as well.

7. A caller added a raised bed around the tree about 5 years ago and heard us discussing how that shouldn’t be done. What can be done now?

A. Adding a raised bed around an existing tree can end up suffocating the tree. Before the raised bed, the tree was planted at the correct depth, after the raised bed, the tree is too deep. It will take between 5-10 years sometimes before any damage starts to show up in the tree. It is likely that once the tree does start to react to this change, you will see top dieback. You can try to remove the excess soil now, but it may be too late, the tree may still die.

8. When do you spray for bagworms?

A. They will hatch at different times in the year, it is weather dependent. Starting in late May, check weekly for the small bags to begin to show up on the trees. When the small bags show up and until they are up to 1/2 inch in length you can spray. Tempo or Bt would be best for control.

9. This caller has an area on the north side of their house in full shade that she would like to plant shrubs into. What can of shrubs can she plant in full shade?

A. There are some euonymus shrubs that could be planted there. This is the same genus of plant as burning bush. Summer sweet would grow well in the shade. If there is some sunlight, many hydrangeas would grow well there.

Termites

Subterranean Termites, Picture from UNL Entomology

10. A caller has concerns about termites coming from wood mulch. Will termites come from the mulch into the home?

A. It really isn’t a concern that termites will be brought in with mulch. The termites would be either cut up with the mulch or they would dry out quickly in those small pieces of wood. They have a soft body and will dry out quickly if not within soil or wood. If the wood mulch is piled up so high to where the mulch is touching wood siding, it can be a pathway for the termites to enter the home. However, mulch is recommended to only be 2-3 inches deep and most concrete foundations will go higher than that. Also, if you have had termites in the past, you should be working with a pest control company for termite control and the chemicals will manage the termites from the mulch.

11. The final question came to us from a Facebook post. This caller has a spot in his lawn that had a sidewalk in 1993, but even still it seems to dry up quickest in the summer and you can see a visual difference in the area where the sidewalk was in comparison to the rest of the grass.

A. This soil was severely compacted to add the sidewalk and still has not gotten better. They also add sand to build concrete on top of. I would suggest aerating annually and spreading compost over this area after the aeration. Over time, this will help to loosen the soil and to add organic matter back to the soil. Otherwise, you can dig it all up again and put in new soil that is high in organic matter and reseed overtop of that which would be much more work.

Yard and Garden: April 26, 2019

Yard & Garden blog, 2019

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 26, 2019. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 2, 2019. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Roch Gaussoin, Extension Specialist for UNL Agronomy and Turf

1. The first caller of the show recently applied a Weed-B-Gon product that contained crabgrass control. Now he wants to fertilize, but it is a fertilizer and crabgrass control together. Will it be harmful to put the crabgrass control on twice this spring?

A. That should be fine and you won’t see any injury from applying the crabgrass control twice this spring. You won’t need to apply any additional pesticides for the lawn this year. Next year, it would be better to do a little more planning ahead so you don’t apply the chemical twice so close together. This is just additional pesticides in the environment that are not necessary, so be careful with that in the future.

2. A caller is bringing in topsoil on a new build site. He needs to overseed, but is it getting too late to do that yet this spring?

A. Seeding the lawn will have the best results if done in the fall, but spring can get a good start on a new lawn. The weather will be the problem to lawns seeded too late this year. With the weather as it has been this year, there is likely still a 2-3 week window for overseeding the lawn with fairly good success. It might be a good idea to overseed now and then do another overseeding in the fall to thicken it up. Also, for weed control, it would help to use mesotrione (tenacity) at seeding. There is a starter fertilizer that contains the tenacity to help with start-up of the turf and to keep the weeds down while establishment occurs. It would just help to get some type of cover crop or turf down to reduce the amount of bare soil that weeds can grow into.

3. This caller has henbit. Would it be controlled well with the Tenacity? If so, should he use a stronger dose of the Tenacity because he has tried it with limited success?

A. It is Never a good practice to use pesticides at a higher rate than what is listed on the label. A lot of research went into finding the correct rate for best control of a pest. Henbit is hard to control this time of year, it is best controlled in the fall. It will die as soon as the heat of the summer comes on because it is a winter annual and doesn’t live well in hot weather. Treat in the later fall, October, with a 2,4-D product for best control.

That caller also has a peach tree that just flowered for the first time. It has two 2-inch long cracks on the tree trunk, each on opposite sides. What can be done with this?

A. Unfortunately this tree is not going to live long. There is nothing to do to fix the tree once cracks like this happen. This large of an opening is very damaging to the tree and will not allow the tree to live long. If it is out in the open where it won’t damage anything if it falls, leave it until it dies.

4. A caller has been trying to get a native grass prairie started for a few years now with limited success. He has a mix with Blue Grama, buffalograss, and little bluestem. What can he do to get it to grow better?

A. Don’t give up yet. Be sure to control the weeds with herbicides, 2,4-D won’t harm the grasses but will manage the weeds. After some photos, it shows that there is still some grass in there, but it is very early for these warm-season grasses. Keep mowing to keep the seed heads down for the weeds.

5. Can potatoes still be planted yet this spring?

A. Yes, get the potatoes in soon, and they should be fine yet this year.

What do you do for Pampas grass with a dead center?

A. Dig it up and divide it and replant it. This can still be done this spring.

She has a crabapple that has dead branches in it, can those be cut off now or should they be removed in the fruit tree pruning window of February-March?

A. Remove dead branches anytime of the year that they appear.

6. A caller wants to know when to spray for bagworms?

A. It is weather dependent. Starting in late May, check weekly for the small bags to begin to show up on the trees. When the small bags show up and until they are up to 1/2 inch in length you can spray.

He also wondered when and how to fertilize trees?

A. It really isn’t necessary to fertilize trees in Nebraska. They can get the nutrients they need from the soil naturally.

tree irrigationHow do you water trees that were recently planted?

A. water them one time per week with a slow trickle from the hose for about 20 minutes each time they are watered.

When is the best time to prune cedar trees to shape them?

A. Most anytime would be fine with a cedar tree, but the best time is in the late winter to early spring.

7. This caller has Austrian pines that are turning brown on the tips of the branches with short needles. What is causing this and how can it be controlled?

A. This sounds like tip blight. It can be treated now with a copper fungicide. A second application should be made 7-14 days after the first application.

8. What is the best thing to mulch asparagus with?

A. Grass clippings, straw, hay, or wood chip mulch can all be used to mulch asparagus. It would be best to hand pull weeds and then use preen that is labeled for use in asparagus before applying the mulch. If there is a problem with brome grass, use roundup carefully around the asparagus first as well. To carefully get the glyphosate on the brome and not on the asparagus either paint it on with a foam paint brush or use the “glove of death” which is when you wear a chemical-resistant glove and then put a cloth glove over that. Then, dip a few fingers of the gloved hand into Glyphosate and rub those fingers along the stem and leaves of the bindweed to kill it.

9. A caller has been trying to start seedlings of spruce and fir trees for a few years with limited success. He thinks it may be due to root rot because when he pulls them up the roots look rotten. How can he get the trees to grow?

A. After discussion, it seems that he doesn’t overwater the trees and may in fact not be watering them enough. He also said that he can get the trees to grow in another, more neglected, location. It was suggested that he do a soil test to see what is going on with the soil in this desired location. It might be that there is a hard pan underneath these trees that is impeding water movement through the soil causing the roots to rot.

10. This caller has been trying to get grass started and is having difficulties. He has used an aerator, seeder, lawn roller, and then waters the seed well and it is not coming in very good.

A. It seems his practices are good, so he may try a soil sample to see what the nutrient and pH levels are in his soil.

11. The last caller of the day wanted to know what the difference is between a Sycamore and a London Plane tree?

A. These trees are 2 different species of very similar trees.

 

Yard and Garden: July 20, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for July 20, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: John Porter, Urban Agriculture Program Coordinator for UNL Extension and Nebraska College of Technical Agriculture (NCTA)

1. The first caller of the day has holes in her yard that are 1-1.5 inches across. Is this ground squirrels? How can she control them?

A. This does sound like damage from ground squirrels. Ground squirrels can be controlled through trapping, baits, or toxicants. For more information on controlling ground squirrels, visit this guide from UNL Wildlife.

2. This caller has Virginia creeper that is having some issues. The first set of leaves have rust spots and holes on them and the new leaves are showing up but the buds are not opening. This plant is growing in part sun. What is wrong with it?

A. This could be a fungus on the leaves of the Virginia creeper that is leaving a shot-hole appearance behind when the dead areas of the fungus get dry and brittle and fall out of the leaf. If it is a fungus a copper fungicide or chlorothalonil to control it. There could also be some heat stress occurring causing the new leaves to not open up. There is also a possibility that herbicide drift has also occurred that has caused the leaves to not open up.

Harlequin Bug, Alton N Sparks, Jr, Univ of GA, Bugwood

Harlequin Bug photo from Alton N. Sparks, Jr., University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

3. A caller has horseradish with bugs on it that are beetle-like and are black with orange spots on them. What are these bugs and how can they be controlled?

A. These are most likely Harlequin bugs. They can be found on horseradish and they can do a great deal of damage. Harlequin bugs are a true bug, like a stink bug, They suck the juices out of the leaves of our plants leaving them wilted and discolored. They can be managed with the pesticide sevin.

4. A walk-in listener works with the football field in town. They have brown spots throughout the field and have found some caterpillars and a large amount of tiny, worm-like creatures. What are these? What is causing the brown spots? How can these problems be solved?

A. These caterpillars are sod webworm. They are a pest of turf. These caterpillars can cause brown spots in the lawn. Triazicide is labeled for sod webworms and would give pretty quick knockdown. The worm-like creatures found on the lawn could be nematodes or they could be fungus gnat larvae. Fungus gnat larvae rarely cause serious damage outside.

5. This caller is having difficulty with tomatoes ripening. What is the problem?

A. The hot weather is causing poor pollination. The pigments responsible for the red color in our tomatoes are not produced when the temperatures exceed 85 degrees. So, when we see long stretches of very hot weather, our tomatoes will not ripen. Be patient, they will ripen eventually when the very hot temperatures recede.

6. A caller is having problems with weeds in his asparagus. Will preen work now to control the weeds? Also, does he need to water his asparagus in the winter months because his asparagus isn’t growing very well.

A. Preen should be applied in the spring to control annual weeds, it will not do anything to control weeds that are already growing in your asparagus. At this point, hand pulling and applying a layer of mulch would be the best option for managing the weeds in the asparagus. When the asparagus is cut back this fall or before it begins to grow in the spring, glyphosate (Roundup) can be used to control the weeds. The glyphosate product can be used directly over the asparagus patch as long as no green from the asparagus is growing above the ground. Then, apply a layer of preen (make sure it is labeled for use in the asparagus) and add the layer of mulch.

Bagworm4

Bagworm

7. The last caller of the day has bagworms in their windbreak. The bags are 1-1.5 inches in length. What should they do about these?

A. Pesticide sprays for bagworms are not going to be as effective now. It is better to control the bagworms from when they hatch until they are up to 1 inch in length. Spraying a chemical now would kill some, but the rate would not be nearly as effective as before. It might be better to just handpick the ones you can reach and watch for it next year to be able to spray sooner in the season when it is more effective.

Yard and Garden: June 22, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 22, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Kathleen Cue, Dodge County Extension Educator

1. The first caller of the day has cauliflower that is turning purple in the garden. What is causing this and can it still be eaten?

A. This is a response to the heat. For next year, blanche the heads just after they begin to form by tying the large leaves up around the cauliflower heads to protect them from the sun or purchase self-blanching varieties. This cauliflower can still be eaten even though it has turned purple.

2. When is the best time to move asparagus?

A. Spring would be the best time for planting asparagus. It is more beneficial to just start a new asparagus patch rather than transplanting. It would be difficult to get all of the plant and there are a lot of newer varieties that will do better with heat and other conditions. If you transplant what you already have growing, it is still best to wait 3 years before heavy harvest again, so it would be beneficial to start over since this asparagus bed is already 20 years old.

3. A caller has nutsedge in their lawn, how can it be controlled? Roundup didn’t seem to work for it.

A. Roundup would not be effective in this situation because roundup is for grass control, while nutsedge is a sedge. For best control of nutsedge, it is best to use either Sedgehammer or Tenacity. Both of these chemicals should be effective, but they should be applied prior to the first day of summer to reduce the population for next year. Also, nutsedge tends to grow in areas of the lawn where the soil is compacted or water tends to sit, reduce the compaction and get the turf growing better to control the sedge better.

Yellow Nutsedge-Howard F. Schwartz, Co. State Univ, Bugwood

Nutsedge photo by Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

4. This caller has a few walnut trees that the tops look good, but near the base of the trunk the tree is losing bark. He recently added some soil and river rock around the trees. Will the trees survive?

A. When adding soil and rock around a tree that had been planted for a while, it changed the grade around the trees. This can lead to many problems with the tree because it makes the tree too deep in the soil, especially after the roots were at a higher level in the soil for multiple years. This will lead to the death of these trees. The bark could be coming off because of the death beginning in the tree or it could be due to possible damage to the roots when the soil and rock was moved in. Either way, the trees will die. Enjoy them until they do or until they become a hazard to homes, cars, or people found underneath them.

5. What would be a good replacement tree for scotch and Austrian pines?

A. Diversity is a good thing to remember when planting a new trees. Diversity includes species and age of trees. This caller has a great deal of trees to replace in a CRP, it is advised to not replace all of these trees at the same time so they have a diversity of age as well. Good choices include Douglas fir, concolor fir, hemlock, eastern red cedar, blue spruce, black hills spruce, Norway spruce, and Ponderosa pines.

6. A caller has a windbreak with bagworms. Is it too late to spray this year? What should he spray with?

A. We should be ok in the window to spray for bagworms. It is best to spray after the bagworms have germinated for the year until when the bags have developed over 1 inch in length. Once the bags are larger than 1 inch long, the chemicals will not be very effective. Tempo or Bt products would be the best choices for control of bagworms, but most any general insecticide will work.

Bagworm4

Bagworm

7. This caller has a 20-year-old red maple that only has leaves on the west side to cover only 1/4 of the tree. What is wrong with the tree?

A. When that much of the tree has died back, it will not recover. It should be removed to reduce the hazards that will appear from a dead tree.

8. A caller has a newly planted blue spruce. How long should they maintain watering the tree? Should it continue through the winter months?

A. Newly planted trees should be watered throughout the growing season, and even during the winter. If we don’t have a lot of snow cover through the winter months, it is important to water an evergreen tree about once a month on a warmer day. When watering in the winter, water in the early to mid-day to allow all of the water to soak into the soil rather than freeze up on top. It would be best to continue watering this tree at least for 3-5 years on a regular basis. However, even a 30-year-old tree needs to be watered some in years of drought. It would be best to always continue to water this tree, even if only sporadically.

9. This caller wondered if adding drain tiles when adding a raised bed around an established tree would help it to survive with this practice that is not recommended?

A. Adding a raised bed to an existing tree is not an issue with drainage. Adding more soil to where a tree is already living can decrease the amount of oxygen that the roots are able to get which can then kill the tree. Also, adding this soil make it so that the trunk of the tree is underground which can decay the trunk and lead to crown rot or other bad conditions that also lead to death of the tree.

10. A caller has a pin oak that the roots are starting to pop out of the soil around it. What can be done for it?

A. Wood-chip mulch can be used to cover up the roots as they show up out of the soil. Do not add soil or increase the soil level. Avoid rock mulch as it can be too hot for the plant. Adding a mulch over the roots will prevent you from mowing over the roots and injuring them. Plants can be planted among the roots as well, but don’t add soil to do that.

11. Is it too late to prune lilacs?

A. Lilacs will begin producing flower buds for next spring shortly after they finish flowering this year. They should be pruned within a couple of weeks after blooming has finished in the spring. They can be pruned this late, but it will reduce the flower production for next year.

12. This caller has lilacs that have never been pruned for many years. How, when, and how much can she prune now?

A. A rejuvenation pruning may be beneficial for this situation. Older lilacs, if never pruned, have unproductive wood. This will lead to less leaf production, less flowering, and often much of the leaf and flower production will be just at the top 1/3 of the plant. When this happens, it is best to just prune the lilac off 6-8 inches above the ground to allow it to regrow with younger, more productive wood to produce more leaves and flowers throughout the whole plant. Rejuvenation pruning should be done just after flowering or in the fall for best health of the plant.

13. The last caller of the day wants to know about planting and growing blueberries and currants in Nebraska. He has pots he wants to plant them in to plant the pot into the ground. Is that necessary? What type of soil should be used?

A. Blueberries are not the best option for Nebraska soils. They must live in highly acidic soils, which we do not have. If determined to grow blueberries in Nebraska, it is best to grow them in a pot in the ground that can be brought up every year to amend the soil with acidic fertilizer or peat moss. Serviceberries may be a better choice to blueberries for Nebraska. Serviceberry is a native plant so it will grow in our natural soils with a lot less care and they have more antioxidants than blueberries do. There are also some newer varieties that have berries larger than blueberries. Currants will grow just fine in our natural soils and need no ammendments.

Yard and Garden: May 25, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 25, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Sarah Browning, Lancaster County Extension Educator

1.The first caller of the show has ant hills throughout her lawn. Is that a good thing or a bad thing?

A. Ants are a beneficial insect, they are predators feeding on many small insects. If they are not in the way of your daily activities, I would leave them alone. However, if they are a detriment to your outdoor activities, you can sprinkle sevin dust in the hole or spray it on the mound.

2. What can be done to discourage barn swallows from making nests on beams under a porch?

A. The best would be to use a porcupine wire attached to the top of the beams or some type of netting to deter the birds from starting the nest there. Once the nest is completed, it cannot be removed due to the eggs in the nest. So be sure to deter the birds before they complete their nests. For more on this, here is a video on Barn Swallows from Dennis Ferraro from Backyard Farmer.

3. A caller wants to know if they can prune the low branches of their river birch now?

A. Yes, it can be done now. River birch trees have a heavy sap flow in the early spring, so waiting until now would cause a reduced amount of sap flow from that tree when it is pruned. Do not remove these branches if it removes more than 1/3 of the tree with these lower branches. That will remove too much of the photosynthetic area in one cutting, stressing the tree too much. Also, do not remove these branches if they are 1/2 the size of the main trunk or larger. It is hard for a tree to seal up the wound from such a large cut.

4. This caller has a small orchard and wants to know how much of the orchard fruit tree he should be spraying on each of his trees?

A. You need to spray the trees enough to get good coverage on all of the leaves. They need to be sprayed thoroughly so that the branches as well as the tops and bottoms of the leaves have been sprayed to hit all the areas where the insects can be found.

5. This caller wants to know when the best time to move peonies is?

A. The general rule of thumb is: ‘if it is a spring blooming shrub, move it in the fall. If it is a fall blooming shrub, move it in the spring’. Peonies are best moved in the first part of September to allow the roots to build in cooler weather. However, they would be fine moved in the spring as well. They may not bloom for a year after transplanting.

This caller also wanted to know if they can divide lilacs and snowball bush and when that should be done?

A. You can divide these, but make sure you take a good part of the roots with. Lilacs don’t divide well, it would be better to layer them and then move that new part. Layering is when you take a branch and stake it down into the ground, while it is still attached to the main plant. This will allow that branch to make roots. Once the roots are present, the branch can be cut from the main plant and transplanted. These 2 plants would best be moved in the fall.

6. A caller has a south facing, full sun, sloped location in his yard. What would be a good groundcover for this area to replace the turf to avoid mowing on the high slope and would require minimal care?

A. Buffalograss would be a good choice for full sun, hot location. Once buffalograss is established it takes very little maintenance. It will take a couple of years of management to control the weeds and to get it established, but it wouldn’t need to be mowed often. Other choices would include a low growing juniper or cotoneaster to cover the ground but have limited management. You could also plant a selection of different full sun perennials and shrubs to cover the ground as well.

BuddleiaPurple, V. Jedlicka

Butterfly Bush, Photo courtesy of Vicki Jedlicka, Lancaster County Extension Assistant

7. Are butterfly bushes easy to grow here?

A. Yes, they grow well in Nebraska. Make sure you wait to prune them in the spring after growth begins again. This will tell you how far back you need to prune the canes to get back to where the growth shows up. In hard winters where the temperature fluctuates, they can have winter die back, but otherwise they do fine.

 

8. A person brought in a picture of a plant they wanted identified, wanted to know how to prune it and if they can cut out the dead stems in it right now?

A. The picture was of a trumpet vine. It is best if it is pruned in the fall or during the dormant season. You can remove the dead branches in the plant anytime. Trumpet vine is an aggressive plant that can spread through the landscape quickly, watch for suckers and cut those out as they grow. Do not spray the suckers as they are growing from the main plant and that could kill the plant too. It also grows very fast and may need to be lightly pruned throughout the growing season to keep the shape and size how you want it.

9. How do you control bagworms on cedar trees?

A. Bagworms should be controlled within a couple of weeks after emergence until the bags are up to 1 inch in length. You can put masking tape inside-out around a branch to collect them as they emerge. Once you start finding caterpillars on the tape wait a week or two before spraying to ensure all the larvae have emerged. This will make one application enough for all the larvae. Bt products, such as Thuricide or Dipel would be best because they won’t harm any pollinators or predatory insects on the trees. Tempo, sevin, eight, or bifenthrin will also work for bagworms.

10. This caller wants to know what to do to prevent seed stalks from forming in rhubarb?

A. Rhubarb will form seed stalks due to many different environmental conditions including cool nights and hot days. Some varieties are just more prone to producing seed stalks early. Just remove those seed stalks as they form and continue to harvest the rhubarb as long as the stalks are still wide.

11. The last caller of the day has a privet hedge along an alley that is not leafing out. It was fine last fall and another hedge in a different location is fine. What is wrong with these privets?

A. This could be due to winter damage and they might come out of it yet. Look at the base of the plants, it could be due to rabbit or vole damage through the winter. If it is that, the privets may not come back. Because this is a full hedge along the alley and they are all looking the same, this could be due to herbicide damage. If someone sprayed the alley to control weeds, they may have sprayed something that got into the roots of the privet and killed them.

This caller also has a row of Rose of Sharon not leafing out either. What is causing that?

A. This could also be due to the same herbicide from the alley. If the herbicide was something like tordon or triclopyr, it would be very mobile in the soil and could have damaged the Rose of Sharon as well.

This caller had a final question that she received hemlock via delivery while the ground was still frozen. The hemlock trees were kept in the garage until the weather warmed up a bit but now have no green needles left on them. Will the trees survive?

A. If there are no green needles or very few, the trees will die. Evergreens need some green needles to continue to grow. It would be best to purchase trees from a local nursery that were grown locally. They are more adjusted to our environment if they are grown locally. Also, if you purchase locally, you can purchase when you are ready to plant and not have to store it until the weather is right. In addition, it might be better to choose a different plant species, hemlocks don’t do well in our environment. It might be best to choose a columnar juniper like a Taylor Juniper or something else better suited to our clay soils and high humidity in the summer.

Yard and Garden: July 28, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for July 28, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and this will be the final episode from the show for 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Kevin Christiansen and Evan Alderman, Agribusiness Instructors from Southeast Community College in Beatrice

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/44qr and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts. This Survey will Close on August 18th.

1.The first caller of the day wants to know if they can still treat for bagworms that were missed with the first application?

A. If the bag is less than 1 inch in length, insecticide applications will still be effective. However, if the bags are larger than 1 inch in length, the insecticides will not work very well. Because this tree has already been sprayed this year and still has bags, I would remind everyone to ensure that they spray efficiently and according to the label, leaving areas untreated can lead to more resistance if those bagworms contacted a small concentration of the chemicals that didn’t kill them.

2. This caller called to ask me what was the best insecticide to spray for bagworms, since I left that out on the first call?

A. Tempo or Bt would be most effective. Bt is the safer alternative because it won’t harm a lot of pollinators as it just targets insects in the Lepidopteran family of insects which includes butterflies, skippers, and moths.

3. A caller has a redbud tree that blew over in a storm this spring. The roots of this tree have begun to grow some suckers. Can one of those suckers be cared for to grow into another redbud tree?

A. Yes, the suckers can be trained into a new tree. It would help the growth of the one you choose to grow if you leave the other suckers for a while as well. All of the suckers will provide energy and food to the roots, so leaving extras for a while will help. Once the main stem gets growing, you can remove the others to push the one upright.

This caller also wanted to know if he can prune his magnolia tree so he can mow under it?

A. As long as the branches are not more than half the size of the trunk and as long as you aren’t removing more than a quarter of the overall canopy the branches may be removed. The best time to prune a magnolia tree is just after it blooms in the spring, pruning now will cut off flower buds that have already developed for next spring. If the branches that would need to be removed for mowing are too large, it might be wise to change the turf to shade perennials such as carex, bleeding hearts, hostas, coral bells, jack in the pulpit, jacobs ladder, Helleborus or Lenten Rose and many other great shade plants.

4. When is the correct time to prune a burning bush?

A. Late fall after the leaves fall off would be best. It is always easier to see the branches and where problem areas are if you prune in the dormant season. Also, it will allow the plant to quickly seal up the wounds in the spring flush of growth. It is not advised to prune now because pruning woody plants after the beginning of August until when they are dormant can hurt the plant. This may cause the plant to push new growth that would be more sensitive to cool temperatures causing more dieback in the plant.

5. A caller wants to know how do you know when Butternut and Acorn squash are mature?

A. These are both winter squash varieties so the fingernail test will work just as it does with a pumpkin. When you think the winter squash is mature, push your fingernail into the rind of the fruits. If your fingernail pokes through the rind, the squash is not mature, if your fingernail does not puncture the rind, it is a mature fruit. Winter squash should have a hard rind.

6. This caller wants to know how to control windmill grass in his lawn?

A. For perennial grassy weeds such as windmill grass, there are two options for managment, either use a Glyphosate product, such as roundup, on the weed and then reseed or use a product containing Mesotrione product, such as Tenacity, on the weed and not harm the grass. The tenacity is more expensive but will not kill your grass so there will be no need to overseed.

This caller also wanted to know what would be digging up his grass?

A. This is likely due to either skunks or racoons digging the grass trying to get to grubs living in the soil. See the following NebGuides to learn how to manage these animals: Raccoons and Skunks Also, if this is due to grubs, apply a grub control next June to reduce the grub population in your lawn.

7. A caller has tomato hornworms in her garden. How can they be controlled? She also wanted to know what grubs come from and how to control them?

A. Sevin will work to control hornworms. However, the population is not usually terrible and the hornworms can be removed by hand and thrown into a bucket of soapy water for control. Grubs are the immature form of Japanese beetles, May/June Beetles, Masked Chaffer for the majority of species in Nebraska. They can be controlled in June with a grub control like the Merit products that contain Imidacloprid.

8. This caller has a 1.5 foot tall tri-colored beech that was planted in full sun this spring. About a month ago, the leaves turned brown. The caller is watering it 2-3 gallons of water every other day. What is wrong with the Beech tree?

A. Beech trees like to be in a more protected location, so this tree may be getting too much sun and too much heat. Because it is such a small tree, there is still time to replant the tree in a more protected and slightly shadier environment. Also, this small of a tree would not need this much water. When replanting it, keep it watered every other day with only about 1 gallon of water each time. After a few weeks in it’s permanent location, you can water with 1-2 gallons of water once a week and continue to back off on days between each watering as the tree grows larger. Remember, this small of a tree will not have a very large root system and it is as easy to overwater a tree as it is to underwater one.

9. How do you control moles in the lawn?

A. Moles are best controlled with a Harpoon trap that can be purchased at most hardware stores. For management tips, see this NebGuide on Moles

10. This caller has a hibiscus tree with a braided trunk that she thought would grow to zone 4, is this hibiscus going to be able to survive in Nebraska winters?

A. Unfortunately, it is highly unlikely that this is a hardy hibiscus that will survive winters in Nebraska. There is a hardy hibiscus that will survive our winters outdoors and those are suited up to zone 4, there is also a tropical hibiscus that is sold here as an indoor plant and will not survive our winter conditions outdoors. I would say that the tropical hibiscus would be the type purchased with a braided trunk. It can survive indoors during the winter months, so she can dig it up and put it into a pot to bring indoors for the winter.

2014-05-29 11.32.16

Clover in a lawn

This caller also wanted to know how to control clover?

A. Clover should be managed in the fall of the year. It will take multiple applications over multiple years to fully control clover in the lawn. Use 2,4-D or triclopyr products in the fall. It is best to apply these products around September 30th and again around the middle to the end of October.

The final question from this caller was if she should cut back her Virginia creeper plant that is turning brown?

A. Leave it alone and allow the plant to come out of the browning on its own. This is a common problem with Virginia creeper that is not terribly damaging to the plant.

11. How do you control anthracnose in tomato plants?

A. A copper fungicide can be used in a vegetable garden if necessary. However, often with home vegetable gardens it isn’t worth the time and money to spray our vegetable crops as the diseases usually only last for a short time and then fade when the temperatures change a little. However, it seems for this caller that the disease is a problem every year. For more information on controlling the disease and how to manage your vegetable gardens to avoid disease problems, visit this Nebguide on Leaf and Fruit Diseases of Tomatoes.

12. A caller has carpenter bees digging holes in her shed and wants to know how to control them?

A. Carpenter bees are a beneficial insect, except when they are burrowing into the wood framing of buildings reducing their structural integrity. They are best controlled with a dust formulation of sevin. Leave the dust in the holes a few days and then the holes can be filled in with a wood putty. For more information, see this guide from Lancaster County Extension on Carpenter Bees.

13. The final caller of the day wants to know how to control ragweed?

A. At this point, the plant is growing too strong to be killed with a herbicide. The best time to treat is in the spring before the plants have grown too large. At that time, they can be treated with 2,4-D. Now, the best control would be to dig or chop out the plants.

Yard and Garden: July 7, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for July 7, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Bob Henrickson, Assistant Director of the Nebraska Statewide Arboretum

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/44qr and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1.The first caller of the day has 10 lilacs growing in a lawn which are now getting a gray film on the leaves. What is causing this problem?

A. This is due to powdery mildew. This is a common problem on lilacs. Lilacs often get this disease if they are planted too closely together reducing air flow or if they are planted in heavy shade. If these plants are not growing in either of these environments, it is likely due to the wet spring we saw this year. Fortunately, this disease is not very damaging to the plants and there is no need to treat for it.

2. A caller has many American elm trees growing in his pasture that seem to suddenly be dying this year after the leaves turn brown and curl up on the branches.

A. Unfortunately, this is likely due to Dutch Elm Disease, which is still present and active in Nebraska. Many of our trees can grow for a few years and then the trees get large enough and conditions become conducive, that it shows up and kills the trees fairly quickly. The only management strategy is to remove and destroy the infected trees to reduce the spread to other trees.

chicory, Joseph M Ditomaso, Univ of CA-Davis, bugwood

Photo of Chicory from Joseph M DiTomaso, University of California-Davis, Bugwood.org

3. What are the blue flowers blooming along the roadside now and can the seed be purchased somewhere?

A. That is chicory, a non-native plant often used in roadside mixes. The seed can be found in some roadside mixes or at local seed sources.

4. A caller has a sunset maple with leaves that are curling and falling off the tree. What could be wrong with the tree?

A. This could be due to herbicide drift. Trees stressed by herbicide drift will often lose their leaves and push new growth. As long as they are producing new leaves that are not curled, the tree will likely be fine. However, many years of damage from herbicide drift can cause more stress and even possibly death.

5. This caller has voles in their yard. How can these be controlled?

A. Snap mouse traps can be placed in the runs perpendicular to the runs. These traps will catch and kill the mice. Here is a guide on vole control

6. A caller has a copper-colored beetle in her elm trees that are causing holes in the leaves. What would this be and how can they be controlled?

A. This could be a Japanese Beetle, an invasive insect from Japan. It is a green beetle with copper-colored wings. These beetles need to be controlled as they can do a lot of damage quickly. They chew on the leaves causing a skeletonization of the leaves as they leave behind the leaf veins. They can be treated with a insecticide containing imidacloprid.

7. A caller has a grass that grows in her lawn. The grass grows in a large circle about the size of a dinner plate and tends to turn brown in any kind of drought when the rest of the lawn does fine, but thrives in higher moisture content. What would this be and how can she make her lawn look more uniform?

A. This could be a cool season weedy grass species. They are often found in our lawns growing in a large circle. I would recommend spot spraying the areas of this different type of grass and then reseeding. This would be best done this fall. Be sure to spray the spot while it is still green and actively growing and use a product such as glyphosate. Overseed the areas in September.

8. This caller has hollyhocks with brown spots on the leaves. What could this be from?

A. This is likely due to hollyhock rust, a common fungus of hollyhocks. Remove the leaves as they develop the disease and destroy the leaves and plant parts removed in the fall cleanup. Fungicides can be used if necessary, such as a liquid copper fungicide.

9. A caller has peach trees that have developed some insects in the peaches making them unedible. What can be done about that?

A. There are a lot of different insects that feed on the fruits of peaches. The oriental fruit moth is one. For any fruit tree, either deal with some insect and disease damages throughout the years or keep your trees on a spray program. Spray every 10-14 days throughout the growing season with an Orchard fruit tree spray that contains two insecticides and a fungicide. Avoid spraying during full bloom. For more information, visit food.unl.edu/local-food-production

10. This caller has a sycamore that has shed some leaves and is now shedding bark. What is wrong with the tree?

A. The shedding bark could be normal. Sycamore trees have an exfoliating bark that is normal to give it the camouflage bark appearance. It may have been hit earlier this spring with anthracnose causing the leaves to drop. Anthracnose is a minor, but common, disease of sycamore trees. It is more prevalent in wet weather, such as this spring. There is no control for it, but the tree should be fine.

11. A caller has been trying to seed grass where a septic tank was and can’t get it to grow. What is wrong?

A. At this point in the year, it would be best to wait until fall to plant grass seed due to the heat, humidity, and lack of rain. However, if you have been trying in the spring and fall and can’t get it to grow, I would recommend getting a soil test done of the soil where this problem is occurring. This will help tell if the soil has other problems because of the septic tank or what was put back into the hole. It was also determined that this is an area around a large tree with a great deal of shade, if the area is too shady for grass, try a groundcover or a carex species that will grow better in more shade.

12. When is the best time to spray for bagworms?

A. Now would be a good time since the bags have emerged. Make sure you spray before the bags are 1 inch in length for best control. You can use any general insecticide for controlling bagworms such as sevin, eight, bifenthrin, tempo, or Bt can be used for a safer control method. Bt will not harm bees and other beneficial insects.

13. A caller has a Norway Spruce that is 8 feet tall. It has been drying up since this spring and looks like it is dying. The tree has been planted here for 5-6 years and is watering slowly every 2 weeks since the trees were planted. What is causing it to die?

A. This could be due to overwatering. The roots of the trees need to breathe in between waterings. If the caller is filling a moat around the trees with water every 2 weeks for this many years, it would be excessive.

14. The final caller of the day wondered if the yard could be sprayed to help with chiggers? He also wondered when the time was to use sedgehammer on the lawn?

A. Nothing can be sprayed on the lawn to entirely help with chiggers. The best defense against chiggers would be to use insect repellent that contains DEET and to wear light colored clothing. Sedgehammer is best used before June 21st or the longest day of the year to help reduce the populations of nutsedge for next year. However, it can still be used this late in the year to kill what is in the lawn this year.