Yard and Garden: May 11, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 11, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dr. Paul Read, Professor of Viticulture, UNL

1.The first caller of the show has asparagus beetles. How can they be controlled?

A. Use a dust or spray formulation of Sevin to control the beetles. When using chemicals around vegetable or fruit crops, be sure to pay attention to the PHI listed on the chemical label. The PHI is the Pre-Harvest Interval which indicates how much time must pass between the application and harvest to avoid pesticide residues. You can also hand remove the insects, destroy them in a bucket of soapy water after removal. The asparagus beetle should be controlled because they will lay their eggs on the asparagus as it grows which can reduce the saleability. Also, their feeding can reduce the amount of ferns produced which can weaken the plant.

2. A caller has a Bing cherry tree that has been planted in the landscape for a few years and it is not growing and seems to be dying. What is wrong?

A. Sweet cherries, including Bing Cherries, do not grow well in Nebraska weather. For cherries in Nebraska, tart cherries will grow here and do best.

3. This caller has grapes that are not taking off that are in their second year of growth since planting. He has 2 varieties, but not sure which varieties they are. What should be done to get them growing better?

A. Grapes are self-pollinated, so only one variety is necessary. It would really depend on what varieties this caller is growing to know for sure what is wrong with them. They may not be the best choices of varieties for this area. For a listing of good varieties to choose from, visit the UNL Viticulture Program website. For good general care: the plants should be trellised and will be productive by the 3rd year. Water is very important for establishment in the first year. It would be beneficial to mound the soil around the base of the plant during the winter to work as insulation.

He also wanted to know if he could move strawberries into an old baby pool? Would this be enough space for the plants to grow?

A. They would be best grown in the ground, but could live in a baby pool as long as there are drainage holes in the bottom of the pool so the soil doesn’t get saturated.

blossom end rot zucchini

Blossom End Rot on Zucchini

4. How do you deal with blossom end rot in vegetable gardens?

A. Blossom end rot is due to uneven watering. It is technically a calcium deficiency, but the calcium is there it’s just not available to the plant due to the water issues. Even watering is going to be key, it is just hard to do in Nebraska when we face drought periods in between heavy rains. It is just best to water the plants 1 inch of water per week over the week to ensure even, adequate watering. Typically, when we see blossom end rot, we only see it for a couple of weeks early in the season, it is not usually a season-long condition.

5. A caller wants to control the dandelions in her lawn and also reseed. How can she do this safely?

A. We are really ending the window of opportunity for reseeding a lawn this year. It is difficult to get turf established when temperatures start to rise in May. Dandelions are best controlled in the fall with a broadleaf herbicide. At this point, the timing for both control of the dandelions and overseeding the lawn would be around the same time. However, you should not overseed the lawn and use herbicides at the same time or the herbicides could injure the turf seedlings. Tenacity, or a product containing Mesotrione can be used at seeding to control broadleaf weeds and not injure the grass seedlings. I would advise using this tactic in the fall or to overseed in late August to mid-September and allow the grass to grow enough to be mowed 3 times and then use a late fall application of a 2,4-D product to kill the dandelions. If there is time for a second application of the 2,4-D at least 2 weeks after the first application and into the early part of November, that would be most beneficial.

6. This caller has plum trees and elm trees growing in their peonies. What can be used to stop the regrowth of these weedy trees without harming the peonies?

A. The safest option would be to cut the trees off then paint glyphosate (Roundup) on the cut stumps shortly after pruning. Be careful to not get the glyphosate on the peonies to avoid damage to them. I would advise against using 2,4-D in this situation to avoid volatization of 2,4-D and causing problems to the peonies.

This caller also wanted to know if she can use Grass-B-Gon products in the peonies and iris’ to control grasses growing in the plants?

A. Yes, this is labeled for use in broadleaf plants to kill grasses.

7. A caller wants to know what she can use for weeds in the asparagus patch?

A. mulch is going to be the best option for any type of weeds in asparagus. Our herbicides are not labeled for use in this vegetable crop. After she is done harvesting the asparagus for the year, she can cut it back so all green growth is below ground and glyphosate (Roundup) can be used over the bed. This could be used in the fall after the season, followed by mulching the plants in to reduce new growth.

8. This caller has a disease on his pine trees. Is it too late to spray the trees to prevent the disease?

A. This is likely either needle blight or tip blight. The timing for spraying for needle blight is in mid May as the needles are emerging, with a second application in mid to late June, so it would be the correct time to spray for this disease. If the disease is the tip blight, the timing for spraying for that is in the third week of April, just before the needles emerge with a second application 7-14 days later. You would be past the prime window for this disease, but it would still be beneficial this early to treat for this disease as well to avoid too much spread of the disease. With the spring as cool as it has been this year, most things are pushed back a bit and fungicides would still be beneficial for these trees.

9. A caller asked why tordon could not be used for the weedy trees in the peonies that caller #6 asked about?

A. Tordon will kill the peonies as well. Tordon is a mobile chemical that can get from the roots of these trees and into the roots of the peonies, killing them as well. Also, Tordon is not labeled for use in a landscape setting, it is only labeled for roadsides and ditches.

10. This caller has 2 viburnums that are growing in her yard. One has leafed out fine but the other leafed out only part of the way and has now stopped emerging from winter dormancy. Will it be ok?

A. Don’t give up on the plants too soon this year. The spring has been quite cold and unusual for our plants. The general recommendation is to wait until June 1st before determining death in the plants. Because it started growing, it is likely that it will be fine. Make sure that the plant is getting plenty of water to help it pull through. If the plant begins to sucker from the base, this could be a sign that the top had cold damage.

11. A caller has 2 ornamental grasses that haven’t greened up yet. Will they survive or are they dead?

A. Just like with the viburnums, give the plants time to come out of their winter dormancy. Many of the ornamental grasses have not begun to green up this year yet. Wait until June 1st before deciding to destroy the plants that may just be slow to come out of dormancy this year.

12. This caller’s lawn is brown and pulls up with no roots attached. Could it be grubs?

A. If there are no roots attached to the grass, it is most likely due to grubs. Grubs can be managed with a grub control product applied to the grass in mid-June. For the grass that died, you can overseed the area in late August to early September.

13. A caller has a patch of rhubarb that is not growing much and is going to seed early. What can be done about that?

A. Rhubarb will start sending out seed-stalks in warmer weather. Some varieties, though, are more prone to send out seedheads early in the season. Cut off the seedheads as you see them start to form to push energy back into the roots and leaf production rather than into seed production for the plants.

This caller also wanted to know if you can root lilacs from a cut branch?

Lilacs are difficult to get to root. The best chances to get it to grow would be to take a piece from the base of the plants that has roots attached to it already. Divide the plant by taking a section off the side of the plant would be best.

14. What would be a good choice for an organic weed killer for dandelions?

A. If the population is manageable, hand removal would be the best organic choice. There are other products such as corn gluten meal and dried distillers grains which are used for pre-emergence weed control. According to the University of Minnesota, ‘It should be noted that any claimed herbicidal effects of Dried Distillers Grains have not been proven or verified as they have been for corn gluten meal’. For post-emergent organic weed control, vinegar can be used, but it is non-selective so it needs to be used as a spot spray. It is important to remember, that bees love dandelions and a small population can be tolerated and helpful for our pollinators.

15. The final caller of the day wants to know about mulching her garden. She uses straw but wheat comes with the straw mulch. What can she do?

A. Straw mulch can bring weed seeds with it, but it does make a great mulch for a vegetable garden. It would be best to shake the straw out over a tarp before applying it to the garden to pull most seeds out of it. Also, using older straw would help so that the seeds would have all germinated before use. Grass clippings make another great garden mulch. Just make sure that the grass was not treated with a pesticide before applying it to the garden. The pesticide label will tell you if or when those grass clippings can be used on a garden again this year. Grass clippings do break down quickly, so it is best to reapply this mulch often or the weeds will poke through.

Advertisements

Yard and Garden: April 13, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 13, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Kyle Broderick, Coordinator of the Plant & Pest Diagnostic Clinic at UNL

1.The first caller of the show wants to know when is the time to trim roses?

A. Anytime now would be good. When the show aired, snow was predicted for over the weekend, so it is advised to wait until the snow has melted before pruning the roses to avoid damage from cold weather.

This caller also has moles, how do they get rid of them in the yard?

A. Harpoon traps work best for moles. To help the trap work better, stomp down a run 2-3 times before placing the trap in the run. This shows that it is an active run and it will lead the mole to continue to pop the soil back up after you knock it down. For more information, visit the UNL Wildlife site and choose the NebGuide on Moles

2. How do you kill grass growing in peony plants

A. Fluazifop is the active ingredient found in Grass-B-Gon products. This will kill grasses and not harm ornamental plants. It can be sprayed right over peonies and iris’ and other ornamental plants. Be sure to not spray your turf or ornamental grasses with this product as it will kill any grass it contacts.

3. A woman has a substance on her artificial turf. Is it mold or moss?

A. It would be moss if it has a green color, but if it is more of a black color, it would be mold. Dry out the area to reduce the problem. You can also clean the artificial turf with a vinegar solution.

4. A caller has an apricot tree with blossoms that are starting to show color. Is there anything that can be applied to protect it from the frost, snow, and cold temperatures in the forecast for the weekend?

A. There are no sprays to protect the fruit tree from cold damage. Watering the tree prior to the cold weather can help protect it because trees use moisture to protect itself in cold weather. This is the reason that peaches and apricots have years of low production, they tend to bloom earlier than the frost free date which will cause cold temperatures to damage the developing flower buds.

This caller also wants to know if they should spray their trees for pests now or if they should apply preen in their gardens?

A. No on both of these questions. There is snow and rain in the forecast which will wash the pesticides off the trees. It is too early to use preen because it stops the germination of annual plants. Winter annual plants emerged last fall and summer annual plants won’t germinate until the soil temperatures have warmed up more. Applying preen too early in the season will cause it to break down sooner in the summer allowing later germinating summer annual plants to emerge once the preen is gone for the year. It is best to wait until soil temperatures have warmed up closer to when the seeds will germinate.

Ant mounds from YandG listener

Larger Yellow Ant Mounds

5. This walk-in listener has mounds that developed in their pasture area after they burned it this spring. What are the mounds from?

A. These mounds developed from ants. Upon closer inspection, Jim Kalisch from the UNL Entomology department, has determined the ants are Larger Yellow Ants. The mounds will persist as long as the land is not tilled. The ants favor building their nests in clumps of bunchgrass, as it provides stability and protection, and the ants tend root aphids on the bunchgrass roots underground. If the mounds are not desired, tilling the ground will reduce the mounds.

6. Can preen be used on asparagus before it emerges?

A. Yes, preen only stops the germination of annual seeds. Asparagus is a perennial plant coming back from the roots, so it will not be inhibited from growth if the preen is applied before it comes up. Make sure you are using the preen that is labeled for use in asparagus, not the general preen that is used in ornamental plantings.

7. A caller has grubs in his vegetable garden space. What should be done about that?

A. A few grubs in the garden won’t be problematic. Mostly, grubs are only damaging to potatoes and not our other vegetable plants. If the population is high enough and damage is occurring, the vegetable garden would need to be moved for a year to treat with chemicals that are not labeled for use in a vegetable garden. There are no products available to treat grubs that are labeled for use in vegetable gardens safely.

8. This caller is taking care of a planting of hostas for the first time. What does he need to do to clean up the space?

A. Hostas die back to the ground every year, so once the weather is a little warmer more regularly, these plants can be cut off at the ground level to remove all of the dead leaves and plant material from last year. Make sure to refresh the mulch to 2-3 inches deep with new organic mulch. If the plants are too big, they can be divided and replanted in other locations. Depending on the size of the plant it can be divided into 2, 3, or 4 parts to replant in other locations or to share with friends. To divide the plants, dig them up and use a spade to cut it into pieces that are then replanted.

9. A caller has white pine trees that were transplanted last year that are now turning brown on the ends of the branches. What is causing this?

A. This could be due to a combination of transplant shock and winter injury. Fall watering will help protect newly planted trees from winter injury. Water these trees well throughout the season and they should improve over time.

10. This caller has an angel wing begonia that is overwintered indoors each year. Can it be placed outside during the summer months?

A. Tropical-type plants, such as this begonia, will not take temperatures below 50 degrees F, but they can live through our summer months. Once the temperatures are consistently in the 50’s and warmer, the potted plant can be placed outside. To prevent breakage of the branches, it would be best to place the planter in a location that is protected from high winds. Next fall, before the temperatures move too cold at night, move the plant back indoors to keep it alive through the winter. Spray the plant with an insecticide before bringing indoors to keep insect pests outside instead of bringing them indoors with the plant.

11. A caller has scrub elm trees that have started growing up in the asparagus patch. What can be done to kill the elm trees?

A. Right after cutting the elm off, paint the stump with a straight 2,4-D product. Don’t use tordon or triclopyr products as these can get into the roots of the asparagus, killing it. Treat the stumps early in the season before temperatures reach 80 degrees F to avoid volatization of the product and causing possible harm to the asparagus.

12. This caller has gnats from houseplants in the office. How can they control them?

A. These are likely fungus gnats from the houseplants. If you know when the gnats first appeared and you can link that to the appearance of a new houseplant, remove that houseplant to remove the majority of the gnats. Houseplant insecticide sprays can also be used. Repotting the plants, removing the majority of the soil from the roots will also help.

13. The last caller of the day wants to know how to control grass in a well-established asparagus patch?

A. You can spray the bed with glyphosate (Roundup) before the asparagus has emerged and no green from asparagus is present, but the grass is green. It would also be best to apply mulch around the plants to reduce new weeds from emerging.

Yard and Garden: April 6, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 6, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Jonathan Larson, Douglas/Sarpy County Extension Educator in Entomology and Jody Green, Lancaster County Extension Educator in Entomology

1.The first caller of the show has little blue flowers in her lawn. How can she get rid of them?

A. This is likely speedwell, it is a winter annual plant so it blooms very early in the spring then dies with warmer weather. At this point, since it is already blooming, just leave it as it will die soon and the seed is already set for next year. Spray it with a 2,4-D product late next fall after it has germinated or use a pre-emergent herbicide in the earlier fall before it germinates.

2. What is the correct mowing height?

A. 2.5-3.5 inches is the recommended mowing height for cool season turf in Nebraska. Too low will lead to more weed pressure and insect and disease issues because the turf cannot compete with these pests when it is too short. Make sure you mow enough to mow off only 1/3 of the turf blade each time you mow to avoid scalping the turf.

3. A caller asked if the treatments for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) were killing the trees?

A. The most effective treatment methods for EAB are trunk injections, which can harm the tree. However, the tree can take about 10 treatments before stressing the tree to the point of death. If you are using Emamectin benzoate as the trunk injection chemical, the tree will only need to be treated every 2-3 years, giving it 20-30 years of injections before harm occurs. For the first few years of treatments, you may be able to use a soil drench rather than a trunk injection, again adding more time with your tree. A soil drench will work, but once the tree grows to 15-20 Diameter, the soil drench is not as effective. In the 20-30 years of treatments, you can get a very good start on a new tree nearby the ash tree to have a well-established tree growing in it’s place for when the ash tree needs to be removed.

Termites

Termites, Photo from the University of Nebraska Department of Entomology

4. Does wood mulch attract termites?

A. If the wood mulch is piled up so high to where the mulch is touching wood siding, it can be a pathway for the termites to enter the home. However, mulch is recommended to only be 2-3 inches deep and most concrete foundations will go higher than that. Also, if you have had termites in the past, you should be working with a pest control company for termite control and the chemicals will manage the termites from the mulch. You will not get termites from mulch, the mulch is cut up too small and termites will dry out in that condition, so that cannot happen.

5. This caller is replanting a windbreak. They have begun with an outside row of cedars and would like to know what to plant on the interior rows?

A. An interior row with multiple types of trees is best. Diversity will help your windbreak survive better if another disease or insect problem comes in to kill evergreen trees like pine wilt has. Good evergreen choices include blue spruce, black hills spruce, concolor fir, Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white pine, and Norway spruce. You can even add in deciduous trees like oaks or maples to fill in as well.

6. A caller wants to know how to control poison hemlock on the edge of his field?

A. 2,4-D and Dicamba in a mix. This mixture is found in the product called Trimec as well as others. It is best to treat the poison hemlock while it is in the rosette stage, so early spring or fall. Do not allow cattle access to the dry matter after this has been sprayed.

7. This caller wants to know if fertilizer is needed to trees as they plant a new windbreak?

A. Fertilizer is not necessary for trees planted in Nebraska. Our soils typically have plenty of nutrients available for use by the trees. It wouldn’t hurt to add fertilizer at planting, but it isn’t necessary.

8. The final caller of the day wants to know how to plant a new asparagus patch?

A. Asparagus is a great plant for a home garden. Many people want to get plant starts from a neighbor to start their patch, but it is best to just purchase a new set of crowns. When planting asparagus crowns, dig a trench 8-12 inches deep and bury the crowns only under 2 inches of soil. As the plants poke up through the soil, add more soil until the soil is level. Avoid harvesting asparagus until the third season of growth to allow the crowns enough time for root production. For weed control, mulch is best, such as wood chips or grass clippings. Preen that is labeled for use around asparagus can be used in the spring to prevent annual weeds from germinating. In late May to early June, when finished harvesting asparagus for the year, you can break all the spears off below ground, leaving no green growth above ground, and spray glyphosate or Roundup over the bed to reduce weeds. After this, allow the plants to grow back up and produce ferns which will produce seed and help your patch grow. You can cut it back in the fall or in the spring before new growth begins.

Yard and Garden: March 30, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for March 30, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Justin Evertson, Green Infrastructure Coordinator, Nebraska Forest Service

1.The first caller of the year has brown rot in her apricot and cherry trees. How can this be managed this spring?

A. Brown rot is a fungus that affects the fruit of stone fruit trees. Spraying with Captan or Chlorothalonil products or using an Orchard Fruit Tree Spray throughout the growing season will reduce the disease. Avoid spraying during bloom if using a combination spray that contains an insecticide to avoid damage to pollinating insects. For more information on spraying and timing, visit food.unl.edu/local-food-production and click on ‘Managing Pests in Home Fruit Plantings

2. A caller has been advised to use a type of fescue called ‘Water Saver Fescue’ because it is more drought tolerant. Would this be a good turf choice?

A. This variety is a turf-type tall fescue variety that is an RTF variety. The RTF is a new type of tall fescue that forms rhizomes, allowing it to fill in a yard rather than just form clumps like the traditional tall fescue. Turf-type tall fescues are preferred to other types of grasses because they do well in our environment and are more drought tolerant than other turf species, such as Kentucky Bluegrass. This wouldn’t be any more drought tolerant than any other turf-type tall fescue species, but it would be drought tolerant.

3. When should a person fertilize their lawn?

A. If using the maximum fertilizer applications for a year, we recommend fertilizing with the holidays: Arbor Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, and Halloween. It is not necessary to do all of these fertilizer applications. If you leave the grass clippings on your lawn, that replaces one fertilizer application over the course of a growing season. If you only apply fertilizer one time per  year, the best time is at Halloween. If you would like to apply 2 applications per year, the other time would be to add an application on Arbor Day.

4. This caller wants to know what is best to use in a vegetable garden to keep the weeds down?

A. In a home vegetable garden, mulch is going to be best for weed control. There are a lot of mulch products that can be used in the garden to reduce weeds including: wood chips, grass clippings (that have not been treated with any pesticides), newspaper, leaves, and cardboard.

green-asparagus-pixabay5. A caller wants to plant a new asparagus bed. How should she go about planting and caring for her asparagus?

A. Asparagus is a great plant for a home garden. Many people want to get plant starts from a neighbor to start their patch, but it is best to just purchase a new set of crowns. When planting asparagus crowns, dig a trench 8-12 inches deep and bury the crowns only under 2 inches of soil. As the plants poke up through the soil, add more soil until the soil is level. Avoid harvesting asparagus until the third season of growth to allow the crowns enough time for root production. For weed control, mulch is best, the same mulches used on a vegetable garden work great for asparagus beds. Preen that is labeled for use around asparagus can be used in the spring to prevent annual weeds from germinating. In late May to early June, when finished harvesting asparagus for the year, you can break all the spears off below ground, leaving no green growth above ground, and spray glyphosate over the bed to reduce weeds.

6. This caller has Colorado Spruce trees with needles at the bottom of the tree that are turning brown. What is wrong with the tree and how can it be fixed?

A. This is likely due to needle cast disease. You can spray the tree for needle cast in May using a liquid copper fungicide. For more information, view this Nebraska Forest Service publication on Diseases of Evergreen Trees.

7. When is a good time to transplant Iris and Peonies?

A. The best time is in the fall, but it can be done now. They may not bloom this spring if you move them now, but will bloom again next year. Be sure to get the peony planted at the same depth it is now or it won’t bloom.

8. A caller has a vine growing on the trees they thought was poison oak. How can it be controlled?

A. It is likely that this is woodbine or Virginia creeper. It doesn’t all have to be killed off, it makes a great groundcover. Cut off the parts growing up the tree and leave the rest for a groundcover. If you need to manage it cut it off and treat with glyphosate or triclopyr or just hand pull.

9. The final caller of the day has recently read that trees can “communicate” to other trees if they are attacked by a pest to help the other tree prepare to defend themselves from the pest problem. Is there any research on this?

A. There is a theory that trees communicate. A German Forester is looking into this idea further. Here is the Article from the Smithsonian Magazine regarding this topic and the research on how trees communicate.

What to do in the Spring?

Spring Things Blog Post

Spring is here. That is wonderful for the weather and the desired plants and flowers, but it also means the insects and weeds are coming back. If you know what you are dealing with, management is achievable.  

Henbit

Henbit is one of those not so desirable weeds that shows up in our lawns in the spring. We don’t really notice it until it begins to bloom and at that point, it is too late for control. Henbit is the early spring weed that blooms purple along the edges of our sidewalks and driveways.

henbit, steve dewey, Utah State Univ, Bugwood

Photo of Henbit from Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

Henbit is a winter annual. This means that henbit only lives for one growing season, but it’s development is different from something like crabgrass which is a summer annual. A winter annual is a plant that germinates in the fall and grows a bit before basically becoming dormant for the winter months. Very early in the spring, henbit will start to grow again, produce flowers and seed for the next year then it will die when the temperatures warm up. This is different from a summer annual which germinates in the spring and goes through its lifecycle through the summer months and dies with our fall frosts.

The problem with henbit is that by the time we see it, or rather see the purple flowers, it is too late to treat for the year. Once the flowers begin to show up, it is already producing seed for next year, so killing blooming henbit is unnecessary because it will die naturally and the chemicals won’t reduce production for next year. However, pulling the plant would be a fine management practice after blooming has begun. It can be sprayed with a 2,4-D product very early in the spring once it has greened up but before it blooms. If you know where it is you can spray it before it blooms. Otherwise, wait until this fall to spray those areas with a pre-emergent herbicide before it germinates in the fall.

Lawncare

This is the time of the year when we want to start seeing color in our lawns. We begin to think we need to fertilize, overseed, and use crabgrass control. Don’t get ahead of the weather with these things. It is still fairly early for overseeding, it can be done in April, but anytime by the end of April to the early part of May is still fine for overseeding. Overseeding too early could cause the seed to germinate in warmer weather. If that warm weather is followed by freezing temperatures, it could damage the newly emerged grass. Fertilization should not be applied until mid to late April when temperatures warm up more consistently.

Crabgrass preventer should not be applied too early in the year either or it will break down before the crabgrass begins to emerge. Crabgrass preventer should be applied when the soils are consistently at 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit. A split application, applying more 6-8 weeks after the first application will ensure crabgrass control through the season.

Asparagus

green-asparagus-pixabayAsparagus is a great vegetable that many people enjoy growing and eating. Now is the time to clean up your asparagus beds if you haven’t done so already. It is a good practice to allow asparagus fronds to stand through the winter to help trap snow during the winter months, providing moisture for the crown of the plant as the snow melts.

If you are planting a new asparagus bed, dig a trench 6-8 inches deep and plant the crowns in that, only covering with a couple of inches of soil. As the plants grow up through the soil, continue to add a couple of inches of soil at a time until the soil in the trench is level with the surrounding soil. Wait for 3 years before you begin harvesting to allow the roots to get fully established.

Salt is not a recommended weed control for asparagus. Asparagus is a salt tolerant plant, but it doesn’t thrive in salty soil environments. Also, the salt in the soil can begin to break down the surrounding soil, leaving you with bad soil for the asparagus and other plants growing nearby. For weed control, it is best to use mulch throughout the season.

Yard and Garden: June 2, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for June 2, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Graham Herbst, Community Forester from the Nebraska Forest Service

If you enjoy reading my Q&A from the show each week, take my quick survey at: http://go.unl.edu/44qr and be entered to win a free plant book or some free UNL gifts.

1. The first caller of the day has a Hen and Chicks plant that has grass growing in it. What can be done to remove the grass? She also has spiders in her lawn, what can she do to control them?

A. Grass-B-Gon is a product that contains the active ingredient Fluazifop. This is a grass herbicide. This product or any others containing Fluazifop can be sprayed directly over broadleaf plants with no damage to the desired plant. The spiders are not an issue outside in the lawn, in fact, they are beneficial. Spiders in the lawn are feeding on insects, many of which cause problems to our plants or bother us. Outside, spiders are beneficial. To keep them from coming indoors, home barrier sprays or tempo can be used around the foundation of the house to keep spiders and insects outside. If there is a fear of spiders, the tempo could be used where the spiders are seen.

2. A caller has a mock orange that has not bloomed for the past few years and now this year it finally is blooming some. Should it be removed? Why hasn’t it been blooming?

A. This could be due to a maturity issue. Many of our woody plants need to become established and get to a certain age before they will begin blooming. It could also be due to pruning time. Mock Orange bushes need to be pruned right after they finish blooming because they bloom on last years growth, or old wood. If they are pruned in the fall or early spring, the blooms would be cut off.

3. When is the proper time to spray for bagworms on blue spruce trees?

A.Spray when the bags are small to get the best control. It is best to spray after the bags emerge in the late spring to early summer but before the bags get longer than 1 inch in length. Mark a branch with a bag on it now and keep checking it to determine when the bags have emerged.

4. A caller has 6 table grape plants that had grapes set on. Now the grapes are dropping off and 70% are gone from the plants. What has caused these plants to loose all of the grapes?

A. This could be due to frost damage. Here is a guide from Oregon State University to describe the many factors that can hinder fruit development in grapes.

Forsythia-Richard Elzey, Flickr

Forsythia, Flickr image courtesy of Richard Elzey per CC license

5. Is it too late to prune forsythia this year?

A. It is too late to prune and not cut off any blooms for next year. Spring blooming shrubs should be pruned shortly after they finish blooming for the year. Forsythias bloomed in March this year, so it would already be starting the formation of flower blooms for next year, pruning them now would cut those buds off. If the intent is to just prune a few branches just a little, it wouldn’t impact the overall blooming of the shrub, but pruning too heavily will lead to little or no development of flowers.

6. A caller wondered where they could go to find the wrap around water bags for trees?

A. Local nurseries should carry them or there are many online locations where you can order them. These bags are beneficial to help keep the root ball moist to help get new trees established.

7. Can Grass-B-Gon be used in strawberries or phlox and will preen reduce the number of runners grown off of strawberry plants?

A. Grass-B-Gon is not labeled for use in fruit bearing tree crops and vines. So, it cannot be used in strawberry plants. It would be good to use for grasses growing in phlox and not cause any harm to the phlox. Preen stops the germination of seed to reduce weeds grown from seed in the garden, so it will not harm runners which are growing off an existing plant, not from seed. Check to make sure the preen you are using is labeled for use in strawberries, the general preen is not for use in vegetable gardens.

8. How do you transplant a wild rose?

A. First, make sure it is on your property. Then, just make sure you dig up as much of the rootball as possible and replant it right away. You could also try taking a cutting from one of the branches and dipping it into rooting hormone and placing it into a pot of gravel to get roots to grow. Once roots develop, you can plant the rose.

9. A caller wants to build a privacy border with shrubs. Would Burning bush work for this or are there other options to choose from?

A. Burning bush would be a great privacy wall with good fall color. Other shrub choices would include serviceberry or any of the viburnums. You could plant it now, just make sure the plants get plenty of water with it being this hot and the roots being minimized due to transplanting.

10. This caller has tomato plants that when they planted it they saw grubs and wireworms in the soil around it. Should they treat for this and if so, what should be used?

A. Grubs are not controlled effectively around vegetable gardens because the chemicals with the best control are not labeled for use in the vegetable garden. However, there is a fairly high threshold of grubs and wireworms in the garden before damage is too high. A few grubs or wireworms throughout an entire garden will not cause any real damage. The plants they are most problematic on would be the root crops such as potatoes.

11. This caller had 2 questions: Her asparagus has been planted in this location for 30 years and is quite spindly, why is that? Her peonies are done blooming now, can she deadhead the spent flowers?

A. The asparagus is regularly fertilized so the small spears could be due to heavy harvest or it could be getting old or too crowded. It would be time this year to stop harvesting to allow the plants to recover and make sure to stop sooner next year. Once peonies and iris plants have completed their blooming period, the flowers can be cut off and composted. Leave the leaf material on the plant to build sugars to help with the flowering next spring.

12. How do you control weeds in asparagus?

A. Hand pulling and mulch would be the best options for weed control. When the plant is done in the fall and the leafy material is all removed below the ground level, the existing weeds can be sprayed with Roundup as long as no green material from the asparagus is above ground or showing. Here is a good explanation from Backyard Farmer of why we don’t use salt on asparagus for weeds and how to effectively control weeds with Roundup.

Carpenter Bee, J. Kalisch

Carpenter Bee photo from Jim Kalisch, UNL Entomology

13. A caller has carpenter bees digging holes into the roof of a patio. What can be done about this?

A. You can plug those holes with caulk or putty or use a sevin dust in the holes. For more information on Carpenter Bees, see this article from Retired Extension Educator, Barb Ogg

14. This caller has puncture vine in the lawn. What can be used to control it?

A. 2,4-D is a good way to control it in the the spring before it blooms.

15. A caller has peonies that need to be transplanted. Can they also be divided when they are transplanted?

A. Yes, they can be cut into a few pieces when they are transplanted this fall. Just make sure that each section you cut off the plant has 3-5 eyes which are more like pink noses or knobs on the roots of the plant. Peonies are best transplanted and divided in September or October.

Yard and Garden: May 12, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 12, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dr. Paul Read, Viticulture Specialist from UNL

1. The first caller of the day called to ask when is the best time to take cuttings from grape vines and how should it be completed?

A: To take a cutting, when you cut off the dormant growth from the previous year, you can take those branches and put them in moist sand to get them to root. After the last spring frost of the year, you can plant those rooted branches outdoors. When you do this method, you need 2-3 buds on each branch. Put at least 1 bud into the ground and have 1-2 buds out of the ground for leaf growth. At this time of the year, you can complete the layering method of propagation. For layering, just bury a few of the longer branches that are still attached to the vine. Once they root, you can cut them from the main plant and replant somewhere else.

2. A caller has a 7 year old peach tree that is dropping leaves like it is fall. What would be causing this to happen and can it be corrected?

A: This could be abiotic stress due to unfavorable environmental conditions. It could also be from peach tree borer. Look along the trunk for small borer holes or sap oozing from branches or the trunk to know if it is the borer. If borers, spray the trunk with a fruit tree insecticide spray. If it doesn’t seem to be from insects, keep the tree healthy through a good mulch ring and regular watering as needed when natural rains are infrequent.

3. This caller has 2 concord grapes that were producing well last year but were taken by the birds before they could be harvested. How can you keep these birds away?

A: Bird netting over the plants to keep the birds out is the only good, effective method of managing birds in grapes.

This caller also wanted to know what is wrong with her peach trees? She has 2 peach trees that are 9-10 years old that now have an orange sap oozing from the trunk.

A: This would be from gummosis, a fungal disease common on peach trees. There is no real cure for this disease, it is just best to prune out the small branches that are affected and cut 6-8 inches below the infected area. Dip your pruners into a bleach/water solution between cuts to prevent further spread of the disease. It could also be from peach tree borers. In that case, use an insecticide labeled for use on peaches for borers.

4. A caller has a row of cottonwoods but there is one tree in the middle that always has yellow leaves rather than green leaves. What is wrong with it and can it be corrected?

A: This is most likely due to an iron deficiency in this tree. That can be corrected by having a certified arborist come in to do a trunk injection. The granules or stakes around the tree are not very effective. Often, iron chlorosis is a sign of other problems with the tree and may be the beginning of the end for the tree. That being said, many of our trees live many years after developing an iron deficiency and some just need an iron injection every 5+ years to live a long and happy life.

Tree hole for blog

Photo of the damage occurring to the Maple tree.

5. A caller has some maples that were recently pruned and the branches had a fungus and some white powdery substance in them when the branches were removed. What is wrong with them and do they need to be removed?

A: This caller emailed me with photos of the problem so I could see for sure what is wrong with the plants and if it can be corrected or if it is a safety issue. Unfortunately, this does look like decay in the tree. Decay within the interior of the tree can be dangerous for when it may fall, the tree is not stable when it has decay. I would guess that the tree has a large limb that was removed at one time and it was too big or improperly cut and now there is a large hole leading into the tree. I would get a certified arborist out to take a look and possibly remove the tree.

6. This caller has a cedar windbreak and would like to plant crabapples. Can crabapple trees grow near a cedar tree?

A: Yes, you can plant crabapple trees near cedars, just make sure that you select a variety that is resistant to cedar-apple rust to avoid having to spray annually to avoid the damage from cedar-apple rust.

7. A caller has a blue spruce tree that is 8 feet tall and was planted 14 years ago that died over the winter months. What happened and how can it be avoided in the other trees in the row?

A: This could be due to a canker which is a fungal disease that stops the flow of water and nutrients from the canker point outward and upward through the tree. If the canker occurred on the lower part of the trunk it would cause the tree to die. There is no cure for canker and no way to prevent it. It could also be due to a root issue that could have happened when the tree was planted or in the nursery. The tree may have a root that girdled the stem killing the tree or it may have been planted to deeply. When you remove the tree, look at the root system to see if this was the problem.

8. This caller has small brown circles in the lawn all around a tree. This problem occurs every year later in the summer in the same location of the lawn. What would be causing this and can it be controlled?

A: This is most likely due to summer patch, a common lawn fungal disease that occurs in the mid-late summer. Normally, this isn’t something that is treated for because it doesn’t occur in the same location every year, but for this caller, it does. Management practices in the lawn can help, such as mowing higher and doing core aeration to reduce the thatch layer in the lawn. If necessary, fungicides labeled for summer patch can be used from now until the end of June.

Summer Patch, L. Giesler turf update

Summer Patch in Kentucky bluegrass photo by Loren Giesler, UNL Plant Pathology

9. What is a better species selection than using Bradford pear?

A: Chanticleer or Cleveland Select are better options for pear trees than a Bradford Pear. Bradford pears tend to have narrow branch arrangement that leads to more broken branches from high winds and storms. These two options are better choices because their branches are wider when arranged on the trunk.

10. A caller has a maple tree that is half green and half a much lighter green color. What would cause this and can it be corrected?

A: The soil pH is higher on one side. A disturbance on the one side could cause it to have iron deficiency on the lighter green side. Try to spray chelated iron on the lighter green side to fix the problem.

11. When is the best time to start asparagus?

A: Spring is the best time, from March to April is prime time for planting asparagus crowns. Be sure to still wait 3 years before full harvest begins.

12. The final caller of the day had 2 questions. She had botrytis on her strawberries last year and sprayed a week ago. Does she need to spray again? Also, can an Annabel Hydrangea be planted in full sun?

A: For the strawberries, apply from 5-10% bloom until flowers have finished blooming. For more information see the Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide from Midwest Universities including UNL. Annabel Hydrangea is one that prefers partial shade. I would avoid planting it in full sun on the South or West side of a building where it would get too hot.

 

Yard and Garden: April 7, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 7, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Hosts: Jonathan Larson, Extension Entomologist from Douglas-Sarpy Counties & Jody Green, Extension Entomologist from Lancaster County

1. The first question was to see if we could guess the caller’s favorite insect that was described as a moth with large, light green wings and feathery antennae?

A. This is a luna moth

2. A caller has moles in the yard and wants to know how to manage them?

A. A harpoon type of trap can be used, but should be prepped ahead of installation. This trap tends to work best if you stomp on a run to determine if it is an active run.  If it gets pushed back up, it is an active run. Stomp on this area a couple of more times and then set the trap to ensure the mole moves through the area. For more information on moles, click here for a publication from UNL on moles.

3. This caller wants to know how to get rid of creeping charlie in a lawn?

A. Triclopyr or a 2,4-D product can be used in the fall. For best control, use the product twice in the fall 2-3 weeks apart. September 30th and October 15th would be good dates for application. This is a tough weed to control, so it will take multiple years of multiple applications. A spring application of either of these products can be used as well to knock the weeds back for this year.

4. When can you transplant daylilies? Can they be planted into an area on the east side of the house with rock mulch?

A. Wait a couple of weeks until mid-late April to transplant them when the temperatures have warmed up more. Also, as long as the area is receiving at least 6 hours of sunlight daylilies will grow fine. This is a tough plant that will grow well in most conditions.

5. A caller has strawberries that had botrytis last year. When should they be sprayed to prevent the disease this year?

A. Apply from 5-10% bloom until flowers have finished blooming. For more information see the Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide from Midwest Universities including UNL.

6. This caller has a pear tree that last year had orange spots on the leaves later in the season. What is this and how can it be controlled?

A. This is due to a rust disease, Cedar-Hawthorn Rust. It is more common in years following a wet spring. The timing for management is in the spring, May and June. See this NebGuide on Cedar-apple rust and related rusts of apples and ornamentals.

7. A caller has started corn, watermelons, and cantaloupe indoors from seed. The seedlings are getting quite large. Can they be transplanted outdoors now?

A. Unfortunately it is still too cold to plant these crops outdoors. These are warm season crops that should not be planted until early May after the frost-free date. These crops could be direct seeded at that time or transplanted but they tend to not do well as a transplant.

8. A caller has 2-year-old rhubarb plants that have come up and have thin, limp stalks. What is wrong with the rhubarb?

A. This could be due to crown rot. Rhubarb is very sensitive to high moisture soils and will often develop a crown rot in these situations. Those plants that have limp stalks should be removed and you can replant in a new location where it has more well-drained soil.

Bagworm4

Bagworm

9. When and what should you spray for bagworms?

A. May-June is the time frame for treating bagworms. It is best to spray them when the new bags are 1/2-1 inches long. Longer than that and they won’t catch as much of the pesticide to die as well. For spray choices, any general insecticide will work, but using Bt would be the least damaging to other insects because Bt only affects insects in the Order of Lepidoptera which includes butterflies, moths, and skippers.

10. A caller has Asparagus that has a green moss-like structure growing on top of the ground around it. What is it and what can they do for it?

A. A picture would be helpful in identifying this pest. If it is actually a moss, they may look into the water in the area because it is likely that it is too wet. If it is a weed, pull or hoe the weed and then add a layer of mulch to prevent further weeds from coming in.

11. This caller wanted to know what to do to grow bigger onions and if they should put Epsom salt on their tomatoes to help them grow more?

A. These onions are growing 3 inches apart, they should be spaced out more for larger sized onions. Place plants or sets 1-6″ apart in the rows, and 12-24″ between rows. For bulb production, plant onions in early spring. The number of leaves that form prior to bulbing determine the ultimate onion size. Since bulbing in each cultivar is triggered by a specific daylength, early planting is the most effective method of increasing bulb size, by allowing more time for leaves to form. If the onions do not grow well before bulb induction, the final bulb size may be smaller than desired. Avoid sets more than ¾ inch in diameter because they are likely to produce seed stalks.

As for the Epsom salt on tomatoes, no you should not apply this to your soil when you plant tomatoes. Our soils have a sufficient amount of magnesium and sulfate, which are the 2 ingredients in Epsom salt, so there is no need to apply more. If you need fertilizer, use a general fertilizer from the nursery or garden center.

12. A caller has a Japanese maple that was injured last May when the leaves curled up and fell off. The leaves never regrew through the summer last year. Will it come out of it?

 A: If it happened that early in the year last year and didn’t put on new leaves, it may be dead. Give it time this spring to green up. You can check if the tree is still alive by scraping the bark on a branch, if there is green underneath it is still alive, if there is brown it is dead.

13. What can you do to manage windmill grass?

A: Windmill grass is a perennial weed. You can use roundup and overseed or use a product containing mesotrione or Tenacity that will not harm your turf. Use the Tenacity in the late spring.

14. This caller wanted to know what to use for a pre-emergent herbicide in a strawberry patch?

A: Preen that is labeled for use in a vegetable garden would be allowed in a strawberry patch. The best control for weeds in strawberries would be to use mulch.

15. Can you use plants to repel insects?

A: Some plants may deter a few insects for a short time, but no, the plants are not concentrated enough to work against the insect pests.

16. A caller has an arborvitae that turned brown on the North side last fall. Will it be ok?

A: This could be due to bagworms or due to environmental stress. Arborvitae trees don’t like the sudden cool down in the fall and it can cause part or all of the plant to die quickly. Unfortunately, if the tree has turned brown all the way back into the trunk, the tree will not regrow on that section. Removal and replacement may be a better option for this plant.

17. This caller wanted to know when they can reseed their lawn and with what?

A: Mid to late April is the best time to reseed a lawn in Southeast Nebraska. Reseed with 100% Turf-type tall fescue or 100% Kentucky bluegrass or a 50% mix of each.

Squash bug-NH-pic monkey

18. A caller asked what to do about squash bugs in their vegetable garden?

A: Fall sanitation and cleaning up the garden will help a lot to reduce the eggs in the soil around your garden. When they do start coming out in the summer, you can use sevin, eight, or bifenthrin to control them. You will have to spray every 10-14 days through the growing season. Watch the Pre-Harvest Interval to know when you can harvest after spraying a chemical on your plants. You can also smash or remove the eggs you see which are tiny, football-shaped bronze colored eggs on the underside of the leaves typically found in the crotch of the leaf veins.

Yard and Garden: March 31, 2017

Yard & Garden for blog, 2017

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for March 31, 2017. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through July 28, 2017. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Natalia Bjorklund, Nebraska Extension Educator in Dodge County

1. The first question was when can we begin applying crabgrass preventer and fertilizer to our lawns this spring?

A. These are both best applied in late April to early May. Crabgrass will not germinate until the soil temperatures are consistently at 55-60 degrees Fahrenheit.

2. A caller wanted to know if he should mulch his asparagus and if he can use ash wood mulch around his asparagus?

A. Yes, mulch is one of the best ways to manage weeds in an asparagus patch. Ash wood chips would be fine. You do want to avoid Walnut wood chips because walnuts produce juglone which is a chemical produced by the tree to act as a weed control for nearby plants. This helps walnut trees with competition in the wild.

3. This caller has a goldenrod that has grown too large and messy for the area where it is planted. How can it be killed and what Goldenrod would be a better choice for a less messy plant?

A. 2,4-D or simple hand removal should kill the plant. When purchasing a Goldenrod plant in the future, any of the varieties would be better than the straight species. Fireworks is a nice, open goldenrod. Wichita Mountains and Baby Blue would be good choices as well.

4. Is it too early to transplant hostas? When should you cut back warm season grasses?

A. Wait a couple of weeks to transplant the hostas until the soil has warmed up a little more. You can cut back the ornamental grasses anytime now. It is better to get the old growth cut off before growth resumes so you don’t cut off the new growth. For ease of cleanup with the ornamental grasses, wrap string or twine around the plant before cutting off the old materials so it stays together when taking to the compost pile.

5. A caller wanted to know how and when to prune roses?

A. Wait until a little later into April to start pruning them. It depends on the type of rose to know how to prune them. This sounds like a climbing rose which can be pruned back about 1/2 to reduce the size. Wait until they start greening up to know which areas of the canes have died back, the dieback should be removed as well. If the canes are long and lean over mowing areas or other things, they can be tied up to a trellis.

6. This caller wanted to know how to get rid of cockleburs?

A. While talking with the caller, it came up that the plant had very small yellow flowers on it and there were spines over the plant except right at the soil surface. This plant is in fact buffalobur, not cocklebur. These are easily pulled up if you pull where there are no spines. A 2,4-D product could also be used if there was a large amount of them in the lawn.

buffalobur, Howard F Schwartz, Colorado State Univ, Bugwood

Buffalobur plant from Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

7. A caller wanted to know if they should water in their crabgrass control?

A. The label will explain to you how a product should be applied for best efficacy. Always read and follow the label instructions to apply correctly. For many of the crabgrass preventers, they would need to be watered in, but again, check the label to be sure.

8. When should asparagus be fertilized?

A. Apply a general fertilizer or a composted manure to the bed after the last harvest or sometime in the fall.

9. This caller has mulberries growing in the windbreak. After they are cut down, what kind of stump treatment should be done to keep them from regrowing?

A. 2,4-D concentrate should be used as a stump treatment. This will take multiple applications and will be more effective if done in the fall. Each time the 2,4-D is reapplied it should be applied into newly drilled holes or to a freshly cut area of the stump.

10. A caller has cedars growing in their landscape. Under the cedars there is bare ground. What can they plant in that area to avoid weeds coming in?

A. The cedars are going to keep that area quite dark and the cedars will take the majority of the water in the soil so mulch would be a good alternative. If plants are desired, use a shade tolerant groundcover such as wintercreeper or vinca vine or perennial plants such as bleeding hearts, hostas, coral bells, jacob’s ladder, and others.

11. This caller has tiny cedar trees coming up throughout the lawn. How can they be controlled?

A. Cut them off at ground level. If a cedar is cut below any lateral growth it will not regrow. Mowing over them wouldn’t be low enough.

3-step pruning cut

Proper pruning cut, University of Missouri Extension

12. When is the best time to prune a maple tree that had a branch break in a storm?

A. As soon as the storm has passed and it is safe to do so, you should remove a branch that broke in the storm. If the damage occurred in a winter storm, let the ice and snow melt off first. Then, hire a certified arborist to come out and make a good pruning cut so that the tree can seal off the wound quickly and fully.

13. A caller has a hibiscus tree that is turning yellow and many of those yellow leaves are falling off the tree. It was moved indoors during the winter months in an area of the house with low sunlight. What is wrong with it and will it survive?

A. Hibiscus plants would need more sunlight than what it has received through the winter. It should be fine once it gets more sunlight. As the days get warmer, you can move it outdoors for more intense sunlight. It should be fine once it gets moved to better growing conditions.

14. This caller has a weeping willow tree that they would like to prune up a little. When can they prune it?

A. The weeping branches shouldn’t be pruned up too much or they could lose their weeping habit. Willows tend to have a heavy sap flow in the spring if they are pruned then, so it would be best to wait until later fall to prune a willow.

15. This caller has grasses that are coming up among the gravel paths around his daylily patch. What can he use to prevent those plants from coming up?

A. Preen is a great way to stop the germination of annual weeds, such as many of our weedy grass species. If they come up before the preen gets put down or if they grow as a perennial weed, you can use a post-emergent herbicide. If it is a grass that is growing out of place among daylilies, you can use Grass-B-Gon or a similar product to kill grasses.

henbit, steve dewey, Utah State Univ, Bugwood

Photo of henbit is from Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org

16. What can be done to manage henbit?

A. At this time of the year, there is nothing very effective at controlling henbit. Henbit is a winter annual plant, meaning that it germinates in the fall and flowers and produces seed in the spring. It dies with the summer heat. As we are now seeing the purple flowers from henbit, there is no need to control what you are seeing. The seed is already present in the lawn for next year and what you would be spraying will die soon. You can hand pull it now and spray with a 2,4-D product late in the fall.

17. This caller has moon flowers that had a lot of hornworms on them last summer. What can be done this year to reduce the number of hornworms?

A. Just because there were hornworms there last year doesn’t necessarily mean you will have a lot this year. Hornworms are sporadic pests. They are easily controlled by hand removal. You can also use sevin or eight or any other general insecticide. Use Bt to protect other pollinators as Bt is only harmful to insects in the order Lepidoptera which includes butterflies and moths.

18. What do you do for bindweed in a vegetable garden?

A. If you haven’t planted yet this spring, you can roundup the plants before you prepare the soil for the summer vegetables. The plants will probably still be a problem later in the year as this is a difficult pest to control. When it comes back in the summer, you can carefully use roundup through the growing season. You can paint the glyphosate product onto the leaves of the bindweed avoiding spraying the desired plants.

Yard and Garden: May 27, 2016

Yard & Garden for blog

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 27, 2016. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 5, 2016. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dick Campbell, Owner of Campbell’s Nursery in Lincoln

1. The first question of the day came via email. A listener wanted to know how to control clover in their lawn?

A. Clover is best managed in the fall months when it is pulling nutrients from the leaves into the roots, it will take the chemical into the roots as well. Products with triclopyr work best, but 2,4-D will work as well. Make 2-3 applications in September and October for best control.

Mallow, Phil Westra, Co State Univ, Bugwood

Common Mallow photo by Phil Westra, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

2. A walk-in question was for identification of a weed.

A. This weed is mallow. It is a difficult weed that will move throughout our gardens. It can be controlled with a careful application of Glyphosate (Roundup). Be careful not to spray any other plants with the glyphosate product.

3. A caller wanted to know when she can transplant daylilies and Iris?

A. The daylily could be transplanted now. It would be best to move these in the spring or in the fall, but daylilies are a tough plant and would be fine if moved now as long as they are kept well watered when it is hot because the root system isn’t developed at the new location yet. Iris would be best if transplanted in the fall.

4. A caller has earthworms making his lawn uneven. What can be done to control those?  This caller also wanted to know if he can water houseplants with water that goes through a water softener?

A. Earthworms are very beneficial to our soils as they reduce compaction and add organic matter back to our soils. The damage from them is only seen for a couple of weeks in the spring with rains. If you can deal with it for a short time, it is best to avoid treating for them. If you have to treat, Sevin insecticide does have some management capabilities for your lawn. As for watering the houseplants with water from a water softener, it is best to use water prior to the softener due to the increase of salts in the water.

5. This caller wants to know how far away from the house a shade plant should be planted? She also wants to know how she can manage grass in Iris’?

A. Spacing the tree from the house depends on the tree chosen and what the full size of that tree is. For many of the oak or maple shade trees, it is best to go 25-35 feet or farther from the house to ensure no problems develop as the tree grows. The grass in the Iris bed can be controlled with Grass-B-Gon.

6. A caller has a cherry tree that the top broke off but it is still attached to the main trunk. Can it be saved?

A. There is no way to re-attach a broken off branch. This branch will have to be removed. Because this is the only branch that is still producing leaves and cherries, the tree should be removed and replaced.

7. A caller has 2 rhubarb patches that were damaged badly by hail. The leaves look terrible. Should those leaves be removed or left on the plant?

A. If there are new leaves growing below the damaged leaves, the damaged leaves can be removed. However, if those damaged leaves are all that is alive on the plant right now, they should be left on the plant until new leaves begin to grow so that the plant can still grow and build nutrients for next spring.

8. A sample was brought in of a trumpet vine with many little insect all over the stem, leaves, and flowers. The plant has been sprayed with Sevin with no control. What can be done for this trumpet vine?

A. Sevin is not an effective method of control for aphids. In high populations you can use Eight or Malathion. Aphids are not very damaging to our plants and they are fairly short lived. Given time, predatory insects will move onto the aphids to control them without chemicals.

9. This caller was looking into planting apple trees and found there is a disease called cedar-apple rust. Is this a concerning disease here and what should be done to avoid problems with it?

A. Yes, cedar-apple rust is a damaging problem for apple trees. The spores can spread up to 2 miles, so it is best to plant a resistant apple tree cultivar. It is also good to look for cultivars that are resistant to apple scab. For choosing your cultivar, here is a publication from Purdue that lists common apple tree varieties and their disease susceptibility: Disease Susceptibility of Common Apple Cultivars

10. A sample was brought in of a tulip tree with leaves that are puckered and rolled downward. What would be the problem with this tree?

A. This tree has aphids on the underside of the leaves that are sucking the juices out of the leaves. Aphids are not terribly damaging to our plants and are fairly short lived. In high populations you can use Eight or Malathion.

11. Is there a dry granular weed killer for the lawn? When is the time to move gooseberries, iris, peonies, and rhubarb?

A. Fertilome is a good dry, granular weed killer. This is best applied early in the morning so it will stick to the leaf blades with the morning dew. Gooseberries should be moved after dormancy. Iris and peonies should be moved in the fall, typically in September when the tops begin to turn yellow. The rhubarb should be moved after they are dormant in the fall or early spring.

12. This caller has asparagus that has been planted in this location for many years and is now dying out. She fertilizes 2-3 times per year with a general fertilizer. What is causing this problem and can it be fixed? She also wants to know if she can use canning salt or Epsom salt in her garden? And, finally, she wants to know what to do for the aphids on her honeysuckle?

A. Asparagus will die out due to age. It would be beneficial to dig it up this fall after it goes dormant and divide the plants to replant as individual clumps. When replanting, sprinkle some bone meal in the hole to help with fertility. As for using epsom salt in the garden, this is not necessary. Epsom salt is magnesium sulfate which is in good supply in Nebraska soils. If nutrients are necessary in your garden, it is best to use a general purpose fertilizer. Canning salt can harm your plants and damage the soil. It is not a recommended practice to use any type of salt in your garden. As for the honeysuckle aphids, those should be controlled with Eight or Malathion. The aphids on honeysuckle can cause witches broom to the plant so they should be controlled.

13. Do raspberries and blackberries need to be grown on a trellis?

A. Yes, a trellis or an espalier would be a good way to grow them. Here is a good guide to growing raspberries and blackberries from Missouri Extension

14. Can red and black raspberries be planted together?

A. Don’t plant them within 20 feet of each other or they will cross pollinate and the fruits will not taste as good.

15. A caller has rhubarb that is shooting up stalks with seeds on them. What should be done with those?

A. Those seed stalks should be removed. Cut the stalk off at the ground. If left the plant will put energy into producing seed that should be stored for leaf and stalk production.

16. The last caller of the day has a mandevilla plant that is growing outdoors in a pot with a trellis. The leaves are now turning yellow and black. What is causing this and how can it be managed?

A. This is a moisture issue. The heavy rains this year are causing a leaf fungus to occur. A rose and flower systemic containing a fungicide can be applied to the plant to help reduce the disease.