Spring will come…Eventually

Thinking about spring planting blog, Jan 16, 18

It has been quite cold the past few weeks. It is hard to think about spring, but maybe thinking about it will warm us up and bring spring weather back to Nebraska sooner. We can begin to plan our landscapes this time of the year to have a plan in place as soon as planting season begins.

Landscaping seems to never be completely finished. Every year you find new plants you really like and unfortunately it is common to lose a few here and there. When you are thinking about a redesign in your landscape, be careful to avoid causing problems to existing plants you want to keep. A common problem I see is when people add soil around an existing tree to add a decorative block border or a new garden bed or to level off a slope surrounding a tree. People often add soil to roots that have emerged from the soil so that they can continue to mow over the roots. Once a tree is growing in a location, adding soil to the rootzone of the tree can and likely will kill the tree.

Tree roots need to breath just like the rest of the tree does. When you add soil to the existing soil around roots, it will basically suffocate the tree. The majority of tree roots are found in the top 18 inches of soil, they are there so that they still have access to oxygen. If you add more soil to the area around the tree, those roots will now be deeper in the soil profile and unable to get the oxygen they need to survive. The tree won’t die immediately from this addition of soil, but overtime the roots will die.

Exposed Tree Roots, J. Fech

Exposed Tree Roots photo from John Fech, Nebraska Extension

Also, when thinking about your landscape and what changes you will make to it, think about common problem areas. If you have Lilacs that are severely damaged every year with powdery mildew or roses that constantly have black spot, maybe it is time to rethink those plants. If a plant commonly has disease problems, it may be planted in the wrong location. Plants only grow to the best of their abilities in locations where they are supposed to grow. Hostas that are planted in full sun will develop brown, papery areas on their leaves every summer. In this case, the hosta isn’t planted in the best location and should be transplanted to more shade. This gives you a new area of full sun to plant something different in.

Try to think about all of the problems you have had in your landscape in the past. Sometimes our plants grow too large for the area they are planted in. If the plant needs to be pruned often throughout the year so it doesn’t grow over a sidewalk or window, it might be time for removal and replacement with something smaller. Or if the plant has a seedhead that is troublesome to you in some way, replacement may be a good option. Maybe the plant has a heavy top and weak stem, causing it to flop down in your garden or causing you to pinch it back often when you don’t have the time or ability. If this is the case try replacing it with a more self-reliant plant. Landscapes can become weedy or overgrown if the space is too large to manage in your spare time, keep your landscape at a manageable level for you.

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Ice and Snow in the Landscape

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Now that we are through the holidays, there is a little less hustle and bustle going on. It was nice to have been blessed with a white Christmas. Fortunately, the snow wasn’t too deep, but there was plenty that we had to get outside for a little cleanup on the sidewalks and driveways. With all the snow we received over the weekend and plenty more weeks of winter to go, I thought I’d give you all a reminder of how to properly take care of snow to not harm our plants.

Deicers can cause damage to our concrete sidewalks and to our plants growing beside them. Many deicing agents contain salt substances, such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride. Because of the salt content found in these products, it can cause severe damage to our plants, if too much is piled on them too often. Typical plant symptoms of salt damage include desiccation (drying out), stunting, dieback, and leaf margin and tip damage that looks as though the leaves were burned by a chemical.

Bag of Deicer

To avoid damage to the concrete, remove the salt as soon as you can. Deicers are meant to make shoveling easier, not to completely melt away the snow and ice. As soon as the salt melts through the ice and snow enough that it can be removed, go out and shovel it off of the concrete. When removing the snow, do it in a manner that protects the landscape plants growing in the yard. Do not pile the snow onto trees, shrubs, or flower gardens. If it has to be piled onto your landscape, move the salt onto the grass and try to do it in a manner that makes it more uniform on the grass surface. If too much salt continually gets piled up on the grass in one location, the turf can be harmed.

The snow didn’t build up too much on our trees with this past snow storm, but when we get a lot of heavy, wet snow, this can be a concern. Sometimes, ice and snow can build up on the branches of our trees and shrubs and can cause the branches to bend improperly. We saw this problem last January with the ice storm that came through. It is best to let snow and ice melt naturally off of our plants. Snow can be lightly brushed off of branches with a broom, if you desire. Do not try to hit the ice off of the tree branches because this can cause you to break some of the branches, which will be more detrimental to the plant. If there is snow on your tree causing it to bend down, it will reform in the spring once the snow melts off of it.

Finally, watch out for your lawn in the winter months as well. It is best to minimize winter traffic on any turf area and especially when frost is present on green turf. If frost has formed and foot or vehicle traffic occurs, the physical abrasion can damage turfgrass. Winter traffic can cause aesthetic damage, physical abrasion, and/or soil damage depending on the situation. Too much traffic on turfgrass at a time when it cannot recover also leads to winter injury. If you have to walk on the lawn for some reason, such as to take a pet outside, try to use a different path each time.

Winter Watering

Winter Watering blog

It’s hard to think about our plants in the winter months. It is even harder to realize that they are still alive and sometimes need care in the winter months. Once plants go dormant for the year many people believe that they need nothing until spring, but that isn’t always the case, especially in years with low or no snow or rain throughout the winter months.

Winter watering is essential in dry winter years. Winter desiccation commonly occurs on evergreen types of trees and shrubs. All trees are still transpiring, or losing water, throughout the winter months, evergreen trees are transpiring at a higher rate than deciduous trees. Winter desiccation occurs when the amount of water lost is greater than the amount of water the evergreen takes in throughout the winter months. The branches and needles of our trees will die. The damage from winter desiccation is brown needles out on the ends of branches. However, the damage from winter desiccation will not usually show up in our trees until early spring, so they will stay green through the winter. Drought effects can damage deciduous trees as well. Especially newly planted deciduous trees need to be watered throughout the winter months if natural moisture is absent.

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Damage to Arborvitae following a dry, windy winter

Ensure adequate watering throughout the entire growing season for all trees and shrubs, especially those recently planted. Make sure that the tree is well watered going into the fall. Also, water throughout the winter when the ground is not frozen to help the trees through a dry winter, if necessary. Winter watering should occur during the day on days when the temperature is 40 degrees Fahrenheit or above and is only necessary 1-2 times per month until spring. It is a good idea to test for soil moisture with a long screwdriver or soil probe prior to watering to determine if watering is necessary. If the screwdriver goes into the soil easily up to 18 inches, watering is not necessary. However, if pushing the screwdriver into the soil becomes very difficult after the first couple of inches or less, watering would be necessary. After watering, apply a light layer of mulch over the roots of the tree, but not up against the trunk to avoid problems with voles.

Turf is another plant to take into consideration regarding winter watering. Winter desiccation can occur on turf when the soil is frozen, making water unavailable to plants. It is more problematic on sunny, dry, windy days when the air temperature is above freezing but the soil is dry or frozen, according to Bill Kreuser, UNL Turfgrass professor. Bill Kreuser states that, a little bit of drought stress prior to winter can actually help prepare the turf for winter conditions, it helps harden off the turf before any severe cold happens. It is actually better for the turf to have drought prior to winter rather than go into the winter with higher precipitation, as has been the case this year.

That being said, home lawns are more tolerant of winter desiccation stress because the Kentucky bluegrass, fescues, and buffalograss have a deeper root system and less overall stress than turf on the golf course. Established lawns may not need winter watering, but newly planted lawns may be more susceptible to winter desiccation. However, if we face a dry winter with little to no snow cover, irrigation may be needed at low amounts. Ensure that winter watering is not through an irrigation system or it will need to be cleared out again so the pipes don’t freeze and burst. It is best to hand water with a hose or bucket in the winter months.

Dandelion Control Should be Done Now

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Photo by Nic Colgrove

Weeds in the lawn will drive us crazy through the whole summer, but don’t forget about them yet. Fall is the best time to treat for broadleaf weeds, even though we don’t notice them as much now because they are done blooming for the year.

Perennial broadleaf weeds including dandelions, creeping Charlie or ground ivy, and clover are best controlled in the fall once the weeds have begun their preparations for winter. In the fall months, these perennial weeds will move sugars that they use for energy from the above ground portions of the plant down into the roots to store them for next spring. If they are sprayed during this phase of their lifecycle, they are more likely to take that herbicide down into the roots and kill the plants rather than just burn the tops off.

The cooler temperatures in the fall are better for turf and ornamental plants due to a reduction in volatilization. In the warm summer days, the herbicides we typically use on broadleaf weeds can turn into a gas and move to non-target plants, causing damage and in some cases even death. With the cooler temperatures, this is not a big concern because the common chemicals we use, such as 2,4-D and Dicamba, do not volatilize at temperatures below 80 degrees. Wind drift is still a concern, so always be sure to apply herbicides on days with little to no wind.

The fall is not the time to worry about or treat for summer annual weeds such as crabgrass. Those plants that are still alive will die with the first frost and the seed will not germinate until next spring when the weather warms back up again. However, you can treat now for winter annual weeds such as henbit, speedwell, and little barley. Once they have germinated this fall you can use a 2,4-D product, which can be achieved with a late October and into early November application for dandelions.

Remember, all of these chemical controls are pesticides and therefore need to be carefully considered and applied according to the label. Any material used to maintain a landscape, including fertilizer, sand, or pesticides, can end up in the storm sewer and lead to pollution of lakes, rivers, and streams. In the same manner, even our grass clippings and leaves can pollute our water supply. There are ways to manage our landscapes while reducing water pollution. The following will help when managing our lawns this fall:

  1. Any fertilizers, pesticides, and grass clippings should be swept back onto the landscape. Using a leaf blower will work as well. The idea is to keep these items on the greenscape rather than on the hardscape that leads easily to the storm sewer. Raking up leaves in the fall will also help reduce the amount of leaf debris that ends up in the water.
  2. Check your sprayers before using to ensure they are properly calibrated and the nozzles are not clogged.
  3. Compacted soils and thin turf do not allow fertilizers and pesticides to infiltrate the soil surface. Aerate and add organic matter to improve the composition of the soil to ensure these products do not run off of hard, compacted soils. Reseed bare areas of the lawn to catch lawn products.
  4. Thatch layers in the lawn can become a natural barrier to prevent infiltration. Aerate the lawn to reduce the thatch layer to allow lawn products to infiltrate their intended areas.

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Tips for Fall Plant Protections

Protect plants for winter, blog

Fall has officially arrived. There have already been frost advisories for the western part of the state, so it won’t be long until frosts occur here. It is at this time that you need to think about care for your plants to protect them through the winter. Here is a ‘To Do’ list to prepare your lawn and garden for winter.

Care of newly planted trees should be considered. If it is a thin barked tree, add a tree wrap to protect it from sunscald. Sunscald is a condition that occurs during the winter with the rapid cool down at night of the cells in the trunk of the tree. The warm up can occur in the winter on warmer days but when night comes, those cells freeze and burst, causing damage to the trunk. Tree wraps will help protect young trees from this condition, but only leave the wrap on during the winter months and allow the trunk to be opened up during the summer to avoid damage from insects and disease.

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Tree Wrap

Young trees would also benefit from a fence around the tree to protect it from damage from rabbits and voles during the winter months. During the winter, these critters chew on the bark of our trees which causes wounds and, in some cases, girdles the tree leading to eventual death. A 2-foot high fence of chicken wire will be sufficient to protect your tree from both of these animals. Make sure the fence is dug into the ground a couple of inches so the voles can’t get under it.

Winter mulch can be applied when temperatures are consistently dropping down to the twenties each night. Winter mulch is the heavier layer of mulch we apply to plants like chrysanthemums and strawberries to keep them from having temperature fluxes in the soil they are planted in. Any plant that may be prone to frost heaving, the plant being pushed up out of the soil by a constant freeze and thaw condition. Plants that were just planted this fall could also benefit from winter mulching. This mulch can be up to twelve inches deep, which is much deeper than we usually advise but is needed for winter protection. It is better to use coarse wood chips, straw, or leaves for winter mulch rather than grass. Be sure to level the mulch back down to 2-3 inches in the spring.

Clean up all spent leaves of annual and perennial plants. Remove the dead plant material and compost it or dispose of it. If there was a problem with a disease or insect problem in the plant this summer, it would be best to dispose of it to reduce the problem with that insect or disease next year. Be sure to wait until the plants have turned brown in the fall before removing this plant material to allow them all the time available to build and store up sugars for next spring.

Now is the time to dig up your summer bulbs to prepare them for winter storage. Plants such as gladiolus, cannas, begonias, caladium, elephant ear and dahlia need to be dug up in the fall and stored indoors over the winter. They need to be dug up prior to a hard frost, or shortly after the first frost. Once the bulbs are removed from the ground, they need to be cleaned off, removing the leaves as you clean, and cure or dry them for 2-3 weeks. Then place the bulbs in crates or boxes, allowing for air flow. Store them throughout the winter in a cool, dark location such as a basement. Check the bulbs periodically through the winter to ensure no bulbs are starting to rot or mold.  If any do start to rot or mold, discard them immediately.

Aerating a lawn…

Lawn Aeration Blog

September is the beginning of our fall lawncare season. Overseeding or reseeding lawns can be done throughout the month and at the beginning of the month we can fertilize our lawns. Toward the end of the month, fall weed control can begin, but not until our temperatures cool off more. One of the other lawn activities that may be considered is lawn aeration.

Compacted soils can inhibit the growth of your grass. When a soil is compacted, the soil particles are packed too tightly together to allow oxygen and water to pass through the soil. This can lead to shallow roots for the grass plants and in turn, can lead to less drought tolerance. Compacted soils can also lead to more thatch build up on the soil surface.

Thatch is the accumulation of dead grass stems that don’t become decomposed. In compacted soils, earthworm activity decreases, as does the activity of other decomposing organisms. The reduction in decomposing organisms leads to the build-up of thatch which can cause problems with the growth of the lawn. Lawns with a high thatch layer can begin to die because the thatch layer repels water keeping it away from the roots of the grass plants.

One of the best ways to reduce thatch and alleviate soil compaction would be to aerate the lawn. Many people interchange the terms “power raking” and “core aerating” when it comes to lawn aeration. However, these are 2 very different activities. Power raking is a more intense form of reducing the thatch layer on the lawn. It is only recommended when a thatch layer is more than ½ inch because at that point it would be necessary to renovate a lawn rather than just to core aerate.

Aeration equipment

Core Aeration Equipment, Photo from John Fech, Nebraska Extension Educator

Core aeration is the method of aerating your lawn most recommended. This is the method where a machine is driven over the lawn while it pulls out many small, core soil samples throughout the lawn. These cores are laid over the top of the lawn but help by leaving holes in the soil surface for water and air to move in and they will fill back in. Core aeration will also sever the roots of the grass plants which stimulates the plants to grow new shoots to fill in the holes.

It is best to aerate a lawn in the spring or in the fall. This time of year is best because the plants can recover before winter or summer conditions that are sometimes difficult on our plants. It is also a good time of year to aerate due to the fact that the soil has more moisture in it than in the other dry months of the year. It is not recommended to aerate a lawn when it is too dry or too wet because it is more difficult to get the tines into the soil which can damage the plants more. It is not necessary to aerate your lawn every year, or sometimes at all. If your thatch layer starts to build up, you drive on the lawn a lot causing more compaction, or if the lawn begins to look thin, aeration can be done. At most, it would only be recommended to aerate a lawn every 3-5 years.

Where to plant a tree this fall…

Tree Siting Blog Article

It’s hard to believe that September is here already! With that, brings tree planting season. Fall is a great time to plant tree.

When planting your trees, remember to pay close attention to where you plant it to ensure that the tree can have a long, happy life in this new location. Often when we plant a tree, it is hard to visualize the full size of a tree, but remember, that small tree will grow into a much larger version. Plant the tree where it can spread its branches and live happily for many years to come.

When planting a new tree, think about what is all around the tree. Consider overhead powerlines, underground utilities, current buildings, any future construction that is planned, sidewalks, and the mature size of the tree.

When planting a tree, call the Digger’s Hotline at 811 to ensure there are no underground utilities near the location of tree planting. Remember, that the tree roots will grow, it would be best to give your tree plenty of space to grow without becoming too close to the powerlines to avoid future problems with the roots and the lines. If the utility company has to come in at any time to put in new lines this can damage the tree as well. Calling the Digger’s Hotline will also help so you don’t run into underground utility lines while you are planting. Never assume that the utility lines are deeper than you plan to dig.

Also, look at the above ground structures when you plant a new tree. Plant large trees at least 20 feet from a building to avoid damage to the building as the plant grows. Often, trees damage roofs, windows, and siding when the branches of the tree run into the building. If the tree won’t fit beside your home in the location you have picked, pick a different tree or a different planting location.

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Trees growing in powerlines, Photos from John Fech, Nebraska Extension

Pay close attention to the location of power lines when planting a new tree. Plant your trees 25 feet away from overhead power lines to avoid damage to the lines or to help the crews of our electrical companies from having to send a crew out to prune the trees in the lines. This doesn’t help them to have to do this pruning all the time and it is a detriment to the overall quality of the tree to have a “V” cut through the middle of the canopy to allow for the powerlines. Smaller, understory trees should be used under powerlines to help the men and women who work for our electric company.

Once you have completed this evaluation of the landscape, you can determine the size of the tree that can be planted and from that, you can decide what tree you would like to plant. Don’t forget to look around your yard and the yards of all of your neighbors. Don’t plant a Maple if everyone else on the street has one in their front yard, pick something else. There are a lot of great trees that do very well in Nebraska environments but are not used enough such as Shagbark Hickory, Sweetgum, Pawpaw, and even a Linden.

This information came from the Nebraska Forest Service.

Fungi in the Landscape

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Everyone loves a nice-looking landscape. However, sometimes unique structures appear in our landscape for seemingly no reason. Fungi can form in the lawn or on our plants. Sometimes these fungal structures look very unappealing, but that may be the only problem. However, there are times when these structures can be a sign of more problems with our plants.

Trees often develop different types of fungi on them. Some fungi develop as a green or whitish mold-like formation on the bark of the tree. This is not damaging to the tree. However, there are fungal formations on trees that can a sign of more damage to the tree. Conks or shelf fungi can form on the branches and trunks of our trees and look like shelves growing out of the tree. When you see a conk, you are seeing the outward formation of interior decay in the tree. Conks are indicators that your tree needs to be removed in the near future because the tree is decaying on the inside and therefore not as sturdy as it once was. If you have a tree with conks and would like to know if it should be removed, have a Certified Arborist inspect the tree.

Puffballs and mushrooms are commonly found in lawns. Both of these structures are fungal formations growing off of some type of decaying organic matter within the soil. They have no roots, stems, leaves, flowers, or seeds like plants do. They have no chlorophyll which is why they are not green and why they cannot produce their own food. Mushrooms found in a lawn are most likely not edible. If you are not sure about a mushroom, do NOT eat it. There are a lot of poisonous mushrooms found that can cause severe illness and even death, it is best to avoid eating if you are not 100% sure of the mushroom.

Puffballs are the large round structures that have no stalk to hold them up off the ground. When they mature or are struck by a raindrop or kicked, the puffball opens up to spread the spores to new areas. Puffballs are common in the late summer to early fall. Mushrooms are the formations found in your lawns and gardens that do have a stalk to hold them up off the ground. Mushrooms look like an umbrella and are often found where a tree is or was recently removed as they live on the roots of the tree or the decaying roots of the dead trunk. Mushrooms are found in moist environments such as during rainy spring months or in an irrigated lawn.

Dog vomit fungus

Dog Vomit Fungus on landscape mulch

We also see many types of slime molds in the landscape. Slime molds typically show up on mulch in our gardens and can take on many different appearances. One of the best named slime molds would be the dog-vomit fungus which looks just as the name implies. There are also yellow, gray, white, off-white, orange, and brick red slime molds. All slime molds are aesthetic issues and cause no problems to your plants. If they bother you, they can be sprayed off the mulch with a strong spray of water.

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Stinkhorn fungus in a landscape

Stinkhorns are another type of fungus we may find growing in the mulch around our flowers. Stinkhorns are small, pink stalks sticking up out of the ground with a brown, slimy cap similar to the cap on a mushroom. Stinkhorns are so named because of the unpleasant odor they can have. This is another type of fungus that causes no harm to the plants and doesn’t need to be removed.

For fungi in the landscape, there is no method of control other than hand-removal. They are either not harmful to our plants or they are just showing us the demise of the plant that is already happening.

Storm Damage to Trees

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This time of year, storms tend to sneak up on us, as we saw last Friday night. Unfortunately, some of those storms can be severe and cause damage to us, our homes, our vehicles, and even our trees. When storms bring strong winds, hail, and tornadoes, these things can all do different kinds of damage to our trees. Cleanup doesn’t end with the branches on the ground.

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If heavy winds come and break branches, those breaks need to be cleaned up to a good pruning cut to allow the plant to seal up the wound. If the storm broke the top out of the tree, it would be a good idea to get a Certified Arborist in to look at the damage to determine if the tree can be salvaged. Allow the Arborist to do the pruning because there are methods that can be done to start a new leader in the tree to help it fill back in and continue to grow upward.

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In addition to branches breaking, some of these trees may have even had bark ripped all the way down the trunk of the tree. When trees have open wounds that are large, it takes a long time for the tree to seal up that location, if it can ever be done. This is a great location for insects and diseases to come into the trees and cause secondary effects on the trees. Unfortunately, there is nothing that can be done to “fix” this type of wound. It is best to just leave it alone and let it heal on its own. You can remove excess bark that is hanging off the tree, but don’t paint or wrap the wound with anything, this can hinder the sealing process of the tree.

Hail can cause damage to the leaves and bark of our trees. If your trees leaves look ragged and ripped due to hail, it is mostly aesthetic damage. The leaves are still on the tree and able to produce sugars through photosynthesis for the trees so it isn’t as damaging as it looks. Damage to the bark on the trunk and on the branches can be more problematic, unfortunately there is nothing that can fix this but time. You will always have round-to-oval shaped wounds where hail hit the tree, but over time the tree will seal these wounds and it won’t be too problematic. If there are a lot of large hail wounds to a small tree, it might be the demise, but give it time to see if it pulls through. For a second opinion have a Certified Arborist look at the tree.

Some trees were uprooted in these high winds. According to John Fech, Kathleen Cue, and Graham Herbst from Douglas-Sarpy County Extension, the younger the tree is, the more chance it has to survive storm damage that caused it to lean. If the tree is 0-5 years old, it has a good chance to survive leaning and should be staked as soon as possible, as long as it is not closely located to people or property. If the tree is 5-10 years old and is leaning, there is a 50 percent chance that the tree will survive. Consult a certified arborist to determine the survivability of that tree, as the degree of lean is what will cause the tree to live or die. If the tree is more than 10 years old and is leaning, it becomes a hazardous tree. If that tree is in an area where it is in close proximity to people or properties, it should definitely be removed. However, if this tree is on an acreage or farmstead and is further away from people or property, it may be able to survive in that location, but a certified arborist should still be consulted to know for sure.

Tree Galls

Spring is a great time of year. We can enjoy spending time outdoors with our friends and family and enjoy the views throughout our landscape. However, that view is sometimes interrupted by weird formations that show up on our tree leaves which are called galls. The good thing about galls is that they are not harmful to our trees, they are just displeasing to the eye.

Galls are commonly seen on many of our tree species. A gall is a deformation on the plant usually caused by an insect but they can be caused by fungi, bacteria, and other organisms. Galls can form on the leaves or on the branches but it is developed as a result of the feeding activity of the insect or mite that then lives inside the gall.

One of the most common types of galls is the Hackberry nipple gall which forms on the underside of the leaf of hackberry trees. This is a very common gall, in fact, it occurs so often that it can almost be used as an identification characteristic of the Hackberry tree. In the fall, the psyllids, or tiny black insects, come out of these galls to mate and often become a nuisance insect in our homes. They are so small that they can get through our window screens and enter our homes to fly around and pester our families.

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Photo of Hackberry Nipple Gall by Sarah Browning, Lancaster County Extension

Another common gall that we are seeing right now is the bladder gall on Maples. This particular gall is caused by a mite. The signs we see from this insect feeding on our trees would be small, bright pink bumps on the top side of the leaves.

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Photo of Maple Bladder Gall

Oaks also get a couple of galls. There is a leaf gall that is fairly common among oak trees called the oak apple gall which is a large, round, tan-colored gall on the leaves. It is a growth filled with a spongy center and contains one wasp larvae in the middle. Bur oaks commonly get a bullet gall which grows all over the branches of bur oak trees. These galls appear as marble-sized, tan, hard structures attached to the branches of the tree. The bullet gall, which is caused by a parasitic wasp, is generally not harmful to the tree, but if the infestation gets very high, it can cause branch dieback.

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Oak Bullet Gall

Cottonwoods get a petiole-leaf gall. This gall is caused by an aphid and is a puffy ball located at the base of the leaf where it meets the petiole, or the stem-like structure that attaches the leaf to the branch of the tree. The petiole-leaf gall will contain many small aphids later in the season that will not harm the tree.

These insect galls are generally not harmful to the tree. They mainly cause aesthetic damage and don’t affect the health or longevity of the tree. There is no way to control the gall insects once the galls appear on the tree and prevention is difficult and not recommended.

Part of the information for this article came from an article written by Mary Jane Frogge, a UNL Extension Associate from Lancaster County Extension.