Pumpkins, Spiders, and Mums

Halloween Pumpkins

Now that October is here, we begin to get prepared for Halloween, a day which I personally enjoy. Pumpkins, spiders, and fall flowers are all part of this festival. So, I won’t miss the chance to help you with your holiday decorations and traditions.

Pumpkins

2017-10-28 19.10.50Pumpkins can be used for so many things including carving, decoration, pies, and many other food products. If planted later in the summer growing season, your pumpkins should just be maturing, or have matured within the last couple of weeks. If you are unsure, pumpkins are mature when the rind is hard and can resist penetration from a fingernail.

Pumpkins do need to be harvested prior to a hard frost. They can be ok out on the vine for a light frost, but a hard frost will damage the pumpkin and can damage storage potential and more likely cause the pumpkins to rot. They should be cut off the vine. Do not cut the vine too close to the pumpkin, this can also cause the pumpkin to decay sooner.

If you didn’t grow the pumpkin yourself, check over the pumpkins you are purchasing. Look for good rind with no puncture wounds. Ensure that the pumpkin has a bit of stem attached to the top and choose the correct pumpkin for the use you have in mind for it. Pie pumpkins are best for baking while jack-o-lantern types will be better for carving and for decorations.

Spiders

Wolf Spider, UNL ENTO

Wolf Spider photo by Jim Kalisch, UNL Entomology

Spiders always come to mind at Halloween as a decoration and because they become a problem inside our homes with the cool fall weather. The most common spider that people bring into my office to be identified is the wolf spider. These are one of the largest species of spiders that we will find in Nebraska. They are quite hairy and often times will have 2 white or lighter brown colored stripes down the back of the spider. There are some wolf spiders that can be the size of a half dollar or more, legs and all. These spiders are not poisonous, but they can bite. Most often, a wolf spider will not bite us, but if they do the reaction is usually similar to a large mosquito bite.

Spiders are actually beneficial, but not often desired. They feed on other insects and pests that can move into our homes. The best way to control a spider population indoors is through habitat modification, meaning to seal up all cracks and crevices in your home foundation and around windows and doors to ensure that the spiders don’t move into your home. You can also use the indoor/outdoor barrier sprays to spray around the foundation of your home and around the windows and doors to reduce spider populations inside your home. Also, sticky traps are a great way to manage spider populations indoors. 

Mums

orange mum, pixabay

Mums are not the scary holiday tradition that spiders and pumpkins are, but they are a common decoration for the fall, including Halloween. Garden mums grow up to 18 inches tall and 30 inches wide and grow into a clump. The flowers are 2-3 inches across and can be found in many colors including white, yellow, orange, pink, purple, coral, and deep burgundy red depending on the variety. Mums need to be pinched back in the early summer to help keep the plants to a compact and uniform size and shape and to help flowering. Pinching should be done 2-3 times in June. It should begin when the plants are 5-6 inches high and it should be discontinued around the 4th of July.

Many gardeners struggle with maintaining their mum plants over the winter due to repeated freezing and thawing cycles through the growing season as well as wet, heavy soil or lack or snow cover. Longevity of the plants can be enhanced by planting them in a location that is more protected from north winds, discontinuing fertilization by the end of July to reduce new growth at the end of the season, adding several inches of mulch to the soil around the plants through the winter months, and cutting the plants back in the spring rather than in the fall.

Advertisements

Biting Insects

Shagbark hickory, flickr, Nicholas A. Tonelli

Now that Fall is officially here, the weather is starting to cool down and we can venture outdoors more. Activities such as Hiking, harvesting, hunting, football, and just enjoying the cooler weather on your patio in the evening are all pleasant outdoor activities this time of the year. However, when we venture outdoors, our plan is never to be the menu for all the pesky insects outdoors.

Mosquitoes

mosquitoMosquitoes are out in full force right now. After the rains we have seen over the past couple of weeks, their population has exploded. Mosquitoes can transmit many diseases, so it is best to protect yourself when you are outdoors. Use Insect repellent and wear long sleeves and long pants or permethrin-treated clothing when outdoors between dusk and dawn when mosquitoes are most prevalent.

As far as chemical control, Mosquito Dunks contain the active ingredient bacterium, Bacillus thurengiensis israelensis (Bti), which is toxic to mosquito larvae when consumed, but non-toxic to humans, pets, pollinators, fish, and other wildlife. They are sold in hardware stores, and will dissolve in standing water such as water troughs, fishponds, rain barrels, and birdbaths. They are effective immediately and can last for a month. For homeowners, it is not recommend to use foggers or adulticide treatments. These treatments are not effective for more than a couple of days and should only be used a few days ahead of a large outdoor get-together if absolutely necessary. At this point, it would be best to just wait for a frost to kill off the majority of our mosquitoes. Our average first frost date is the end of September to the beginning of October, so one should be here soon.

Minute Pirate Bugs

minute-pirate-bug-zoomed-kim-riggs-richardson-co

Minute Pirate Bug

Minute pirate bugs are also a nuisance right now as well. Minute pirate bugs are the tiny, black insects that seem to fall out of the trees and bite us during the fall months. The bug, which is a true bug, is 1/8 inch in length black insect with white and black wings. The appearance of this bug is very similar to a chinch bug. The wings have an “X” on them which is typical for insects that are true bugs.

Minute pirate bugs are present throughout the summer but they are out in fields, woodlands, and gardens. During the summer they are feeding on other insects, making them a beneficial insect. But, in the fall, these insects move into the areas where people are more often outside and they begin to bite us. When they bite us, they insert their piercing-sucking mouthpart into our skin, which can be painful. Some people may react differently and swell up from the bite, but most people just have the initial pain with the bite. Minute Pirate bugs do NOT feed on blood, inject a venom or transmit diseases. Control is not practical for them as they will also die with our first frost. Insect repellents do not deter them, so it is best just to wear long pants and a long-sleeved shirt to reduce areas for them to bite us.

Ticks

lonestar tick, lifestages, J. Kalisch

Lonestar tick life stages, Photo from Jim Kalisch and Wayne Kramer UNL Department of Entomology

Ticks are also still a problem this late into the season. Ticks are common in wooded areas or in tall grass. If outdoors in areas where ticks are commonly found, wear light-colored, long-sleeved shirts and long pants and closed toe shoes to reduce exposed areas where ticks can attach to your skin. Also, use insect repellents any time you are outdoors, the repellents with DEET have the highest efficacy. One tick I have seen recently is the immature form of the Lonestar Tick. This immature form is very tiny in size and would be easily missed by a quick visual inspection. This tick can spread diseases if left to feed on you long-term, so be sure to protect yourself prior to going outdoors and check yourself when you come indoors.

Attack of the Beetles

JB Damage

Damage from Japanese Beetles

This year, like always, we are facing insect issues in our lawns and gardens. It is important to remember that not all insects are bad, in fact the majority of all insects are beneficial in some way. However, when they are found in large populations or damage our plants, or both, we get concerned.

 

Soldier Beetles

Soldier Beetle

Soldier Beetle, Photo from Soni Cochran, Lancaster County Extension Assistant

Soldier beetles are common this year. These are the yellow beetles found in large quantities throughout the area this year. They are often confused with fireflies because they are both beetles without hardened elytra, like many other beetles, and they are similar in appearance. The soldier beetle we are seeing is golden in color with a black spot on each wing on the back. They are commonly found around Linden trees as well as many other flowers. There is no need to control soldier beetles because they are great pollinators and will not harm our plants or us.

Japanese Beetles

Japanese Beetle, 7-16 Acreage

Japanese beetle adult on the left side and grub on the right side, photos from Jim Kalisch, UNL Entomology

Japanese beetles have been more of a problem for southeast Nebraska over the past couple of years than they had been in the past. This is an invasive insect from Japan. Japanese beetles are problematic insects as both larvae and adults. The larvae are a type of white grub which feed on the roots of our grass, causing large brown dead spots in the turf that are easily lifted up like a rug from the floor.

Adult Japanese beetles are 7/16 inch-long, metallic green beetles. The elytra, or wing coverings, are copper. As adults, Japanese beetles feed on over 300 species of plants including trees, shrubs, fruits, vegetables, field crops, weeds, and other ornamental plant species. Some of their favorite food plants are roses, lindens, and grapes. Adult beetles feed on the foliage, flowers, and fruits of these plants. They feed on the upper surface of the leaves and cause a skeletonized pattern to the leaf where the veins of the leaf are often left behind but the rest of the leaf is chewed away. In some cases, they will consume the entire leaf. This can stress the plants, and in high populations of beetles can even kill the plant.

Grubs can be controlled with chlorantraniliprole or imidacloprid in June. Adults can be controlled with systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid or dinotefuron around Mother’s Day to give the products time to get throughout the trees and shrubs being treated. Currently, no systemic insecticides can be used on Lindens though, due to the damage to pollinators. Tempo and Bayer Advanced Lawn & Garden Multi-Insect Killer (cyfluthrin), Ortho Bug B Gone (bifenthrin), or Sevin (carbaryl) would be a few other options that can be used on Lindens and others. These options will only work for about 2 weeks so they may need to be reapplied.

Blister Beetles

blister beetles, K. Jarvi

Black and gray blister beetles, Photos by Keith Jarvi, Emeritus Extension Educator

Blister beetles were a real problem in our vegetable gardens last year, and they are back. Blister beetles are ½ inch long, powdery gray colored beetles with black antennae. They can feed on our tomato plants as well as some other vegetable crops. They can damage our plants, but they are also beneficial because they feed on grasshopper eggs. If you find them in your garden, you can treat with general insecticides such as sevin or eight. Be careful handling these beetles, some people develop blisters after handling them.

Butterflies…Everywhere

Butterflies blog

As a nature-loving person, with major interests in plants and bugs, I love going outside in the warmer months of the year to enjoy all the plant and insect life outdoors. One of my favorite things to view would be the butterflies. I love the unique coloration patterns and flying abilities of butterflies. This year there is a bit of an increase in population of one particular butterfly, the painted lady butterfly.

The painted lady butterfly is a pinkish-orange butterfly with black blotches on the wings. The forewings have a white-spotted, black tip. This butterfly has a wingspan of 2-2.25 inches. They are often confused with monarch butterflies but painted ladies are more pinkish in color, not striped, and are smaller than the monarch.

Painted lady, Whitney Cranshaw, CSU, Bugwood

Painted Lady Butterfly, Photo courtesy of Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

Painted lady butterflies are being seen this year in quite large numbers. Many of the callers are just curious as to why there are so many butterflies on the gravel roads or if these butterflies will do any damage to their plants. Some callers are just curious why the populations seem so large this year. These are all great questions as this year, the population is quite a bit higher than other years.

Painted ladies are one of the butterflies in the nation that migrate through Nebraska every year from the south and they do not overwinter here. This year there is an abundance of painted ladies in the south. The high population has built over many years of ideal conditions for the development of painted lady butterflies in the south. The weather has been less harsh and there is an abundance of host plants there, as well, to help increase the population. This higher population coupled with the wind currents this year have led to a very high population moving through Nebraska late this summer.

Painted Lady underside, N. Stoner

Underside of a painted lady butterfly

As a butterfly, the painted lady is a pollinator insect and therefore is beneficial to have around. So, the butterflies will not damage our plants they will in fact help us. However, as a caterpillar, they do feed on some of our crops. It seems there is an abundance of host plants for them this year so it looks like we could face one to two more generations of the painted lady butterflies in Nebraska this year before the frost occurs. The butterflies we are seeing now are laying eggs on different plants, including soybeans, that will emerge into caterpillars. When that happens, those caterpillars could feed on the leaves of soybeans as well as our vegetable garden crops. However, it is NOT recommended to apply pesticides to control adult painted lady butterflies, instead just watch in your fields and gardens and treat the caterpillars if necessary.

So, the abundance of these butterflies is a good thing for our pollinated plants. Remember only a couple of years ago we had a very high population of the periodical cicada, it is just another reason that nature is so unique and so enjoyable. All insects go through periods of increase and decline in their populations, it is mostly dependent on environmental conditions as well as food and host plant availability. Enjoy the butterflies while they are here, we don’t usually get to see so many all at once.

What’s that green beetle…

Green Beetles Blog post

All plants are wonderful. However, it is highly unlikely to find a plant that has absolutely no insect problems. This year we have been seeing a couple of unusual beetles wreaking havoc in our vegetable gardens and they can be found on our trees and shrubs as well. Japanese Beetles and Green June Beetles have been more problematic in southeastern Nebraska this year than most other years.

Japanese beetles are an invasive insect from Japan, where it is not a major pest due to the natural predators found there. This pest was first found in the United States in a New Jersey nursery in 1916 and was likely introduced in infested iris bulbs from Japan.  Since this initial introduction, Japanese beetle populations have steadily expanded westward.

Japanese beetles are problematic insects as both larvae and adults. The larvae are one of the four most common types of white grubs found in Nebraska. As a white grub, larvae feed on the roots of our grass, causing large brown dead spots in the turf that are easily lifted up like a rug from the floor. Adult Japanese beetles are 7/16 inch-long, metallic green beetles. The elytra, or wing coverings, are copper. These beetles can be distinguished from similar looking beetles by the six tufts of white hair along both sides of the abdomen. As adults, Japanese beetles feed on over 300 species of plants including trees, shrubs, fruits, vegetables, field crops, weeds, and other ornamental plant species. Some of their favorite food plants are roses, lindens, and grapes amongst others. Adult beetles feed on the foliage, flowers, and fruits of these plants. They feed on the upper surface of the leaves and cause a skeletonized pattern to the leaf where the veins of the leaf are often left behind but the rest of the leaf is chewed away. In some cases, they will consume the entire leaf. This can stress the plants, and in high populations of beetles can even kill the plant.

Green June Bug vs JB

Green June beetles are often being found this year as opposed to other years. They are very large, usually more than one-inch in length. They are dull green with some brownish coloration to the elytra and a tan border along the margins of their elytra, which are the hard wing coverings on a beetle. Green June Beetles will feed on ripe fruits and vegetables like tomatoes, corn, and grapes. They will feed on the fruits and the leaves of the plants and as an immature, they are also a white grub species.

These 2 green beetles can be controlled through multiple methods. As larvae, they are best controlled with insecticides applied to the lawn in the months of May, June, and July. There are many different options available including the most common grub control, Merit which contains imidacloprid. Pesticides can be used on the adults in plants, however, be sure to avoid use of pesticides directly on the flowers of these plants to avoid harming pollinators. Imidacloprid, sevin, eight, or other general insecticides can be used on trees and shrubs to control the beetles. In low adult populations, you can hand pick the beetles off of plants and throw them into a bucket of soapy water to kill them and not harm any pollinators.

EAB: What to watch for??

EAB

Photo by Leah Bauer, USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Bugwood.org – See more at: http://www.insectimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5473689#sthash.6HVDSdAf.dpuf

Emerald Ash Borer, EAB, is an invasive insect that was first found in Nebraska in the summer of 2016 when it was found in Omaha and in Greenwood Nebraska. Previous to this discovery, EAB was found in Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, and Colorado for the closest confirmed presence of this insect to Nebraska. Now that it has been found in Nebraska, there are more concerns for the residents.

One of the common calls I have received lately is determining if a poorly growing ash tree is infected by Emerald Ash Borer or if the insect on the tree is an Emerald Ash Borer beetle. It is hard to determine by looking at the tree if it is infected by EAB, but there are some signs to look for on your tree.

The signs of EAB infestation include suckering at the base of an ash tree, decline in the tree from the top of the canopy downward through the tree, 1/8 inch D-shaped exit holes along the trunk and branches, increased woodpecker damage, S-shaped Serpentine galleries underneath the bark of the tree. One of the first signs is that the tips of the branches will be bare of leaves. If you notice any of these symptoms in your ash tree, you should contact your local Nebraska Extension Educator.

EAB Damage Collage

As for the beetle itself, which would be flying as an adult now, it is a ½ inch long metallic green colored beetle. It has a bronze-purple color under the elytra. Elytra are the hard wings on a beetle. There are a lot of green colored insects that are often confused with EAB. There are tiger beetles, Japanese beetles, Green June beetles, green ground beetles, green stink bugs, and many other green borer beetles.

EAB Look-Alikes Chart -3200px - Updated May2017

If you find any green bug on your tree make sure you bring it to your local Extension Office. The best way to transport insects is to scoop them up and put them into a zip-top baggie or old pill container or old sour cream or butter container and bring it in for proper identification. If you find an insect over the weekend or cannot get into the Extension Office right away, place your insect in the storage container and put it in the freezer to preserve it until a professional can identify it.

At this point, Emerald Ash Borer has only been found in Omaha and Greenwood in Nebraska. The recommendation is to wait to treat for Emerald Ash Borer until it is found within 15 miles of the tree’s location. There are chemical treatments that are effective against EAB. Homeowners can use a soil application, but this is most effective on trees less than 15 inches in trunk diameter. If the tree is larger, professional tree care companies can use a trunk injection. Wait until the insect is found within 15 miles before any treatment is done because the injections wound the tree and we want to wait as long as we can before we begin wounding our trees. A homeowner should also decide if the tree is in good health and a good location before beginning treatments. Planting ash trees at this time is not recommended. If you will not be treating your tree, it might be a good idea to start a new tree nearby to replace the ash tree when the time comes.

At this time, the only thing we can do to help with the ever-expanding problem is to not move firewood or wood products.  Buy wood locally when camping and leave unburned firewood at the campsite when you leave. Also, determine if you have an ash tree in your landscape and watch the tree for signs of this beetle.

What is crawling around in my house?

2015-02-04 09.33.35

The winter months can really drag out. You can’t go outside and garden and you are stuck indoors. It is at this time that you might start to notice some other critters coming into your home as well. There are a lot of home invading insects and arthropods that use our homes to stay warm through the winter.

One of my favorite non-insects from my childhood would be the roly-poly, which is officially called a pillbug. These arthropods are not harmful indoors and are often found in damp basements. They are also found in potting soil, so if you bring any outdoor plants inside for the winter, you may bring these inside with the plants. If pillbugs are found in your home, just pick them up to remove them from your home or vacuum them up.

Fruit flies are another problem in the winter months. They are tiny yellow flies with red eyes found around the kitchen. They are often found indoors attracted to fruits, vegetables, beer, sodas, and fermenting things in our garbage. These fruit flies are a real nuisance as they fly around us and our food in our homes. For management of fruit flies, it is best to eliminate their breeding locations and food sources. Throw out all fruits and vegetables past their prime for eating and make sure to rinse out all beer and soda cans and bottles before throwing them away. It might also be helpful to just keep your trash in the garage or other location near the house to avoid problems indoors. For those left in your home, you can make a fruit fly trap easily and cheaply. Take an empty container such as a jar or yogurt container and fill the container 1/4 of the way full with apple cider vinegar to attract the fruit flies. Put a few drops of dish soap in the vinegar to make the flies sink as they land on the vinegar and cover the container with a layer of plastic with a few holes poked in with a toothpick to allow the fruit flies in. This will bring the fruit flies in to die in the vinegar which attracts them to the trap in the first place.

fungusfruit-fly

Another aggravating insect pest indoors in the winter would be the fungus gnat. Fruit flies and fungus gnats are often confused, but opposed to the bright colors of a fruit fly, fungus gnats are tiny black flies. Fungus gnats often get into our homes in houseplants or potting soils used indoors. They are not damaging flies, but they can be a real nuisance indoors. To rid a home of fungus gnats, there are many options. Try repotting the plants and allowing the soil to dry out more between waterings. You can also place a yellow sticky card next to the plants that will attract the gnats to kill them in the sticky glue on the card. Finally, you can treat the soil with insecticides labeled for use on indoor houseplants or use a mixture of 1 part bleach to 10 parts water and run that through the soil to kill any maggots left in the soil.

Soon we may begin to notice ants in the home or the winged reproductive stages of ants which are common in the spring months. If temperatures warm up for a few days at a time, some ants may even become active in the late winter months. Ants in the home are mostly a nuisance pest, but can sometimes be quite difficult to control. Liquid ant baits or bait stations are the best for control of these pests. Also, be sure to reduce overgrown landscaping outside the home around where the ants are coming in and use barrier insect sprays to reduce their movement into the home.

ants with bait

Information regarding management of Fungus Gnats and Fruit Flies is from Jonathan Larson, Douglas-Sarpy County Extension, from the Acreage e-news Pest of the Month articles.

Pirate Bugs are Everywhere!

Fall is a great time of year, the weather is cooler, the trees are turning brilliant fall colors, and we can enjoy being outdoors. However, sometimes that enjoyment is smashed when insect invaders join our outdoor gatherings. The minute pirate bug is one that shows up this time of the year.

minute-pirate-bug-zoomed-kim-riggs-richardson-co

Minute Pirate Bug photo courtesy of Kim Riggs, Richardson County Extension

Minute pirate bugs are the tiny, black insects that seem to fall out of the trees in the fall and bite us. The bug, which is a true bug, is 1/8 inch in length and black with white and black wings. The appearance of this bug is very similar to a chinch bug. The wings have an “X” on them which is typical for insects that are true bugs.

Minute pirate bugs are present throughout the summer but they are out in fields, woodlands, and gardens. During the summer they are feeding on other insects. They are actually a beneficial insect. Pirate bugs are predatory insects that feed on many insects that cause harm to our plants, such as thrips, aphids, mites, and small caterpillars as well as the eggs of other insects.

Most people wouldn’t notice these pirate bugs if they didn’t land on us and bite us. Pirate bugs bite with a pain that doesn’t seem possible from such a tiny insect. However, some people may not notice the sting at all because the reaction to the bite can differ from no reaction at all to having the area swell up like a mosquito bite. But, in the fall, these insects move into the areas where people are more often outside and they begin to bite us. When they bite us, they insert their piercing-sucking mouthpart into our skin, which can be painful. However, the good thing is that they do NOT feed on blood, inject a venom or transmit diseases.

Because of the painful reaction that most of us receive from this pest, we want to do something to control them, however, control is not practical. Minute pirate bugs are a temporary pest, they are beneficial insects, and most of our solutions would not harm them so there is no reason to try to control them with an insecticide. Using a bug spray will not deter them either because they are not attracted to us by carbon dioxide like most other blood-feeding insects such as mosquitos. So, the best control for these pests would be to wear long pants and long-sleeved shirts and dark colored clothing or to wait patiently for cooler weather when they will no longer be a problem.

ground-beetle-daniel-r-suiter-univ-of-ga-bugwood

Photo of Ground Beetle courtesy of Daniel R. Suiter, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

And just as a reminder, this is the time of the year when our insect invaders start to move into our homes. Many of the insects and other arthropods that we see every year are things like boxelder bugs, Asian multicolored ladybeetles, ground beetles, centipedes, millipedes, and spiders. All of these do not pose any physical harm to us, spiders can bite but it is rare and usually does not cause much harm. The best controls for these critters would be to use a home barrier spray, sticky traps and to vacuum them up as you see them. These insects and others are moving into our homes with the cooler temperatures to keep warm during the winter.

Grasshoppers!!

Grasshopper via Mark Robinson,Flickr

Photo of a Grasshopper from Mark Robinson via Flickr Creative Commons License

This year has been quite warm and fairly dry. We have been lucky to have received the rain that we did see come through in July after such a dry June. However, that warm, dry weather has lead to an increase in grasshopper populations this year. These grasshoppers have been a large problem in our lawns and gardens.

Grasshoppers can be a problem in grassy areas and in our gardens. They will feed on flowers and some vegetables such as lettuce, beans, and sweet corn under normal situations. However, in situations where the population is high, like this year, they can be found feeding on nearly all vegetables and in some cases even trees and shrubs. They can even be found eating paper, paint, and window screens. On our plants, you will notice a high number of grasshoppers as well as the chewed appearance of the leaves, fruits, and flowers of many of our plants.

Grasshoppers are often reduced in population due to the environment during their developmental period of life. If we have cool, wet weather right after they hatch from their eggs, typically in early to mid-May, this will help reduce the populations. The nymphs are vulnerable to death due to starvation in the early development of their lives. In most years, we face a fairly wet, cool May that helps reduce the population of grasshoppers, but this year that did not happen, so our populations are high.

Grasshoppers can be managed fairly well. There are some good cultural and mechanical practices that can help as well as some use of chemicals in other locations.

Keeping overgrown grassy areas mowed and/or tilled will help reduce the sites where grasshoppers prefer to lay their eggs, therefore helping to reduce the population. It may also help to leave some of the border areas of a large yard, especially in an acreage setting, unmowed so that the grasshoppers will stay in the unmowed areas of the lawn and not move as quickly into the lawn and garden areas. You may also plant some trap crops, such as zinnias or other flowers in these border areas to attract grasshoppers to these plants instead of your lawn or garden.

For chemical control, it is best to treat grasshoppers when they are young. Once grasshoppers become full grown adults, they have a decreased susceptibility to insecticides and they are larger which also makes them harder to control with insecticides. With all insects, management is much more effective if insecticides are applied at a younger age for the insects to be controlled.

illinois bundleflower

Look for areas along the roadsides for spraying where eggs are deposited.

When applying insecticides for grasshoppers, first concentrate the sprays on the roadsides and ditches where grasshoppers lay their eggs to get them when they first emerge from the eggs. Then you can focus on the lawn and garden areas. In the vegetable garden, be sure to use insecticides that are labeled for use in the vegetable garden such as sevin or eight and follow the PHI. The PHI is the amount of days to wait to harvest after spraying has been done. Most any general insecticide can be used in locations not in the vegetable garden including sevin, eight, or malathion, just make sure the label has grasshoppers and the area to be treated on it and it will work.

The information for this article came from the NebGuide: A Guide to Grasshopper Control in Yards and Gardens by Gary Hein Extension Entomologist, John Campbell Extension Entomologist, & Ron Seymour Extension Educator.

Mosquitoes and the Zika Virus

mosquito

Mosquitoes are a huge irritation in the summer months. Mosquitoes are a type of insect that is in the same order as flies, which means they are closely related to flies and gnats, which all tend to bother us. Mosquitoes are also vectors of many different diseases. Because of these factors, we need to do what we can to eliminate the problem and reduce mosquito populations.

The best way to avoid any pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes is to prevent being bitten. Like any pest management program, IPM is the strategy that works best to prevent mosquito bites at home in the yard. Sanitation is a must to eliminate breeding sites and harborage locations of mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes lay eggs on the surface of standing water and the larvae (“wigglers”) require water to survive before pupation. Removal of stagnant water in a variety of containers such as flowerpots, buckets, gutters, pool covers, used tires, and dog bowls will break the mosquito life cycle. A general rule is to dump any water that has been standing for more than five days.

Culex mosquitoes are active biters in the evening, so it is important to wear long sleeves and pants or permethrin-treated clothing when outdoors between dusk and dawn. The effective insect repellents applied to skin include those with the active ingredients: DEET, picaridin, or the oil of lemon eucalyptus.

As far as chemical control, Mosquito Dunks contain the active ingredient bacterium, Bacillus thurengiensis israelensis (Bti), which is toxic to mosquito larvae when consumed, but non-toxic to humans, pets, pollinators, fish, and other wildlife. They are sold in hardware stores, and will dissolve in standing water such as water troughs, fishponds, rain barrels, and birdbaths. They are effective immediately and can last for a month.

It is not recommend to use foggers or adulticide treatments by homeowners. These treatments are not effective for more than a couple of days and should only be used a few days ahead of a large outdoor get-together if absolutely necessary.

It is best to utilize IPM to reduce your exposure to mosquitoes because they spread many diseases including West Nile Virus and the Zika virus. Most people who get West Nile Virus have no symptoms or have flu-like symptoms. However, from 2001 to 2009 1,100 deaths in the U.S. were attributed to West Nile Virus. Most of the deaths occurred in people ages 65 and older.

As for the Zika Virus, it has been known about since 1947, but has just recently hit the news as it spreads more. Zika does appear to have minimal impacts on adult humans, but if a pregnant woman becomes infected, her fetus may suffer from developmental abnormatlities such as microcephaly. The good news is that the main mosquito that transmits Zika isn’t in Nebraska. The mosquito that most commonly transmits zika to humans is the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Recently, a zika vector was found in Richardson County Nebraska, but this was Aedes albopictus, which has been found in Nebraska before and is the lesser of the Zika vectors. Aedes aegypti is the more competent vector as it feeds almost exclusively on people, according to Jonathan Larson, Nebraska Extension Entomologist. This summer, some counties will be trapping for mosquitoes in Nebraska to monitor for the presence of the mosquito that could carry Zika. We are not on high alert for Zika in Nebraska, but it is still a good idea to protect yourself from mosquito bites to reduce the chance of West Nile and other mosquito vectored diseases.

Zika mosquito map, J. Larson

Map showing the potential range of A. aegypti the mosquito that can transmit Zika virus, from acreage.unl.edu/zika-virus

Information for this article came from the article Zika Virus, the June Pest of the Month on the Acreage Insights webpage for Nebraska Extension. It was written by Drs. Jody Green and Jonathan Larson, Nebraska Extension Educators.