Yard and Garden: May 25, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 25, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Sarah Browning, Lancaster County Extension Educator

1.The first caller of the show has ant hills throughout her lawn. Is that a good thing or a bad thing?

A. Ants are a beneficial insect, they are predators feeding on many small insects. If they are not in the way of your daily activities, I would leave them alone. However, if they are a detriment to your outdoor activities, you can sprinkle sevin dust in the hole or spray it on the mound.

2. What can be done to discourage barn swallows from making nests on beams under a porch?

A. The best would be to use a porcupine wire attached to the top of the beams or some type of netting to deter the birds from starting the nest there. Once the nest is completed, it cannot be removed due to the eggs in the nest. So be sure to deter the birds before they complete their nests. For more on this, here is a video on Barn Swallows from Dennis Ferraro from Backyard Farmer.

3. A caller wants to know if they can prune the low branches of their river birch now?

A. Yes, it can be done now. River birch trees have a heavy sap flow in the early spring, so waiting until now would cause a reduced amount of sap flow from that tree when it is pruned. Do not remove these branches if it removes more than 1/3 of the tree with these lower branches. That will remove too much of the photosynthetic area in one cutting, stressing the tree too much. Also, do not remove these branches if they are 1/2 the size of the main trunk or larger. It is hard for a tree to seal up the wound from such a large cut.

4. This caller has a small orchard and wants to know how much of the orchard fruit tree he should be spraying on each of his trees?

A. You need to spray the trees enough to get good coverage on all of the leaves. They need to be sprayed thoroughly so that the branches as well as the tops and bottoms of the leaves have been sprayed to hit all the areas where the insects can be found.

5. This caller wants to know when the best time to move peonies is?

A. The general rule of thumb is: ‘if it is a spring blooming shrub, move it in the fall. If it is a fall blooming shrub, move it in the spring’. Peonies are best moved in the first part of September to allow the roots to build in cooler weather. However, they would be fine moved in the spring as well. They may not bloom for a year after transplanting.

This caller also wanted to know if they can divide lilacs and snowball bush and when that should be done?

A. You can divide these, but make sure you take a good part of the roots with. Lilacs don’t divide well, it would be better to layer them and then move that new part. Layering is when you take a branch and stake it down into the ground, while it is still attached to the main plant. This will allow that branch to make roots. Once the roots are present, the branch can be cut from the main plant and transplanted. These 2 plants would best be moved in the fall.

6. A caller has a south facing, full sun, sloped location in his yard. What would be a good groundcover for this area to replace the turf to avoid mowing on the high slope and would require minimal care?

A. Buffalograss would be a good choice for full sun, hot location. Once buffalograss is established it takes very little maintenance. It will take a couple of years of management to control the weeds and to get it established, but it wouldn’t need to be mowed often. Other choices would include a low growing juniper or cotoneaster to cover the ground but have limited management. You could also plant a selection of different full sun perennials and shrubs to cover the ground as well.

BuddleiaPurple, V. Jedlicka

Butterfly Bush, Photo courtesy of Vicki Jedlicka, Lancaster County Extension Assistant

7. Are butterfly bushes easy to grow here?

A. Yes, they grow well in Nebraska. Make sure you wait to prune them in the spring after growth begins again. This will tell you how far back you need to prune the canes to get back to where the growth shows up. In hard winters where the temperature fluctuates, they can have winter die back, but otherwise they do fine.

 

8. A person brought in a picture of a plant they wanted identified, wanted to know how to prune it and if they can cut out the dead stems in it right now?

A. The picture was of a trumpet vine. It is best if it is pruned in the fall or during the dormant season. You can remove the dead branches in the plant anytime. Trumpet vine is an aggressive plant that can spread through the landscape quickly, watch for suckers and cut those out as they grow. Do not spray the suckers as they are growing from the main plant and that could kill the plant too. It also grows very fast and may need to be lightly pruned throughout the growing season to keep the shape and size how you want it.

9. How do you control bagworms on cedar trees?

A. Bagworms should be controlled within a couple of weeks after emergence until the bags are up to 1 inch in length. You can put masking tape inside-out around a branch to collect them as they emerge. Once you start finding caterpillars on the tape wait a week or two before spraying to ensure all the larvae have emerged. This will make one application enough for all the larvae. Bt products, such as Thuricide or Dipel would be best because they won’t harm any pollinators or predatory insects on the trees. Tempo, sevin, eight, or bifenthrin will also work for bagworms.

10. This caller wants to know what to do to prevent seed stalks from forming in rhubarb?

A. Rhubarb will form seed stalks due to many different environmental conditions including cool nights and hot days. Some varieties are just more prone to producing seed stalks early. Just remove those seed stalks as they form and continue to harvest the rhubarb as long as the stalks are still wide.

11. The last caller of the day has a privet hedge along an alley that is not leafing out. It was fine last fall and another hedge in a different location is fine. What is wrong with these privets?

A. This could be due to winter damage and they might come out of it yet. Look at the base of the plants, it could be due to rabbit or vole damage through the winter. If it is that, the privets may not come back. Because this is a full hedge along the alley and they are all looking the same, this could be due to herbicide damage. If someone sprayed the alley to control weeds, they may have sprayed something that got into the roots of the privet and killed them.

This caller also has a row of Rose of Sharon not leafing out either. What is causing that?

A. This could also be due to the same herbicide from the alley. If the herbicide was something like tordon or triclopyr, it would be very mobile in the soil and could have damaged the Rose of Sharon as well.

This caller had a final question that she received hemlock via delivery while the ground was still frozen. The hemlock trees were kept in the garage until the weather warmed up a bit but now have no green needles left on them. Will the trees survive?

A. If there are no green needles or very few, the trees will die. Evergreens need some green needles to continue to grow. It would be best to purchase trees from a local nursery that were grown locally. They are more adjusted to our environment if they are grown locally. Also, if you purchase locally, you can purchase when you are ready to plant and not have to store it until the weather is right. In addition, it might be better to choose a different plant species, hemlocks don’t do well in our environment. It might be best to choose a columnar juniper like a Taylor Juniper or something else better suited to our clay soils and high humidity in the summer.

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Yard and Garden: May 18, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 18, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Graham Herbst, Community Forester from the Nebraska Forest Service

1.The first caller of the show has moss growing on the soil of an area where he is trying to plant blueberries and asparagus. Is the moss an indicator of acidic soils? He has used a pH meter and it all reads at 7.0 pH. How can he get the right soil conditions for these plants?

A. Moss does like living in acidic soils, but it will grow in most any location that is moist and typically shady. To know for sure how the soil pH is, it would be most accurate to get a soil test completed. Do a separate test for each section of this garden to know what is best for the blueberry area and what is best for the asparagus patch. Understand that blueberries do not grow well in Nebraska due to our weather and our basic soils. The soil would need to be amended around the blueberries every year to ensure the acidic soil they prefer.

2. A caller sprayed the lawn with a weed killer with crabgrass control 10 days ago. Can he go back in now to apply a fertilizer with a weed killer in it?

A. Without knowing the ingredients in the crabgrass control and weed killer it is hard to tell, but it if there is a weed killer in both the crabgrass control and the fertilizer it would not be advised to use both. It would be best to go in with just a fertilizer now and avoid the weed control for now. It is recommended to wait at least 2 weeks between applications of herbicides.

3. This caller divided and transplanted hostas last year, they are not growing as large as they had been before they were divided. Should anything be done to help them grow larger?

A. Give them time to get over the transplant shock and to build their roots back up. You can fertilize them as well to help them grow healthier. A general fertilizer for perennials would be helpful, a 10-10-10 fertilizer would benefit.

He also wanted to know if it is too late to transplant lilies this year?

A. It would still be fine to transplant lilies this year. Just make sure on very hot days you keep the plants watered.

4. A caller has a native grass patch that now has volunteer plants of Siberian elms and cottonwoods. How can these tree saplings be controlled without harming the grass?

A. If they are small and the population isn’t too high, mechanical removal can be beneficial. They shouldn’t regrow from a sapling. He could also use 2,4-D or a product containing triclopyr as a stump treatment for the saplings to ensure no regrowth occurs.

5. This caller has boxwoods that turned brown over the winter months. What can be done about this?

A. This is likely due to winterkill. Evergreen plants still transpire through the winter, if that transpiration exceeds the amount of moisture the plant takes in through the winter, desiccation can occur. Prune out the brown areas. As long as there are still green leaves on some of the branches, it should grow back.

6. A gentleman has a wildflower prairie area that is getting grasses and weeds coming in. What should be done at the end of the season with this wildflower garden to help reduce the weeds?

A. Mowing the weeds at the end of the season will help reduce the seedheads of weeds. You can also continue to add new plants to compete with the weeds, taller weeds will be most effective. For more information, visit this NebGuide on Wildflowers for the Home Landscape.

Wildflower Collage

Wildflower Photos from the Nebraska Statewide Arboretum at: arboretum.unl.edu/wildflower-week

7. A caller received a black chokeberry with a collection of plants. What is that plant? How should it be grown?

A. This is a nice, multi-stemmed large shrub that can grow up to 3-6 feet tall. It is a great plant for full sun and it produces berries, also called aronia berries, that can be made into jams or jellies but it is typically not eaten raw. Here is an article from the UNL Community Environment website with more information on Chokeberries

8. Is it ok to transplant a lilac shrub now?

A. It would be better to wait to do in the fall rather than right now. The lilac could be cut back to no more than 1/2 the size of the plant before moving, to make it more manageable. Do not cut it back to the ground for a few years to allow the plant to work more on building roots than on growing.

9. This caller has a double weeping cherry tree that has developed a frost crack over the majority of the trunk and now it is not leafing out. What can be done to save the tree?

A. The lack of leaf development may not be due to the frost crack. If a callus has begun to form on the frost crack, that is a good sign. Once the frost crack has developed, there is nothing to do to fix it. The lack of leaves could be due to cold damage from the winter, but not necessarily the frost crack. Give the tree some time to see if it is just late coming out of this long, hard winter. Don’t fertilize it now, it can do more damage to fertilize an already stressed plant. Scratch the bark off on some of the smaller twigs, if it is green underneath, the plant is still alive, if it is brown, the plant is probably not going to survive.

10. How long does it take for a pear to start producing fruit? This caller has one that was planted in 2015 and has not yet bloomed more than just a couple of blooms.

A. It can take pear trees up to 10 years to start flowering and producing fruit, but the can begin this as early as year 3.

11. A caller has a snowball bush he would like to transplant. When is the best time to move this plant and how is it done?

A. Fall would be the best time for this. To be most successful with this transplant, dig up as much of the rootball as you can and only cut the plant back up to 1/2 the size that it is now. When replanting, dig a hole just as deep and twice as wide as the rootball and backfill with the existing soil from the new location.

12. The last caller of the day has a sawtooth oak that was planted last year. As soon as it was planted it dropped all the leaves but regrow them through the summer last year. Now, the tips of the branches seem to be dying back and the tree is suckering at the base. He mulched the tree in and he waters slowly for 10-15 minutes every 2 weeks or less. What is wrong with the tree and will it survive?

A. The water amount is sufficient, but more often would be beneficial to the tree. Water a newly planted tree for about 15 minutes once a week. This tree is likely facing some problems with transplant shock, but should be coming out of that. The oaks are slower to come out of dormancy this year. Give the tree a couple more weeks then prune out the tips that have not developed leaves while the rest of the tree has.

Yard and Garden: May 11, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for May 11, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dr. Paul Read, Professor of Viticulture, UNL

1.The first caller of the show has asparagus beetles. How can they be controlled?

A. Use a dust or spray formulation of Sevin to control the beetles. When using chemicals around vegetable or fruit crops, be sure to pay attention to the PHI listed on the chemical label. The PHI is the Pre-Harvest Interval which indicates how much time must pass between the application and harvest to avoid pesticide residues. You can also hand remove the insects, destroy them in a bucket of soapy water after removal. The asparagus beetle should be controlled because they will lay their eggs on the asparagus as it grows which can reduce the saleability. Also, their feeding can reduce the amount of ferns produced which can weaken the plant.

2. A caller has a Bing cherry tree that has been planted in the landscape for a few years and it is not growing and seems to be dying. What is wrong?

A. Sweet cherries, including Bing Cherries, do not grow well in Nebraska weather. For cherries in Nebraska, tart cherries will grow here and do best.

3. This caller has grapes that are not taking off that are in their second year of growth since planting. He has 2 varieties, but not sure which varieties they are. What should be done to get them growing better?

A. Grapes are self-pollinated, so only one variety is necessary. It would really depend on what varieties this caller is growing to know for sure what is wrong with them. They may not be the best choices of varieties for this area. For a listing of good varieties to choose from, visit the UNL Viticulture Program website. For good general care: the plants should be trellised and will be productive by the 3rd year. Water is very important for establishment in the first year. It would be beneficial to mound the soil around the base of the plant during the winter to work as insulation.

He also wanted to know if he could move strawberries into an old baby pool? Would this be enough space for the plants to grow?

A. They would be best grown in the ground, but could live in a baby pool as long as there are drainage holes in the bottom of the pool so the soil doesn’t get saturated.

blossom end rot zucchini

Blossom End Rot on Zucchini

4. How do you deal with blossom end rot in vegetable gardens?

A. Blossom end rot is due to uneven watering. It is technically a calcium deficiency, but the calcium is there it’s just not available to the plant due to the water issues. Even watering is going to be key, it is just hard to do in Nebraska when we face drought periods in between heavy rains. It is just best to water the plants 1 inch of water per week over the week to ensure even, adequate watering. Typically, when we see blossom end rot, we only see it for a couple of weeks early in the season, it is not usually a season-long condition.

5. A caller wants to control the dandelions in her lawn and also reseed. How can she do this safely?

A. We are really ending the window of opportunity for reseeding a lawn this year. It is difficult to get turf established when temperatures start to rise in May. Dandelions are best controlled in the fall with a broadleaf herbicide. At this point, the timing for both control of the dandelions and overseeding the lawn would be around the same time. However, you should not overseed the lawn and use herbicides at the same time or the herbicides could injure the turf seedlings. Tenacity, or a product containing Mesotrione can be used at seeding to control broadleaf weeds and not injure the grass seedlings. I would advise using this tactic in the fall or to overseed in late August to mid-September and allow the grass to grow enough to be mowed 3 times and then use a late fall application of a 2,4-D product to kill the dandelions. If there is time for a second application of the 2,4-D at least 2 weeks after the first application and into the early part of November, that would be most beneficial.

6. This caller has plum trees and elm trees growing in their peonies. What can be used to stop the regrowth of these weedy trees without harming the peonies?

A. The safest option would be to cut the trees off then paint glyphosate (Roundup) on the cut stumps shortly after pruning. Be careful to not get the glyphosate on the peonies to avoid damage to them. I would advise against using 2,4-D in this situation to avoid volatization of 2,4-D and causing problems to the peonies.

This caller also wanted to know if she can use Grass-B-Gon products in the peonies and iris’ to control grasses growing in the plants?

A. Yes, this is labeled for use in broadleaf plants to kill grasses.

7. A caller wants to know what she can use for weeds in the asparagus patch?

A. mulch is going to be the best option for any type of weeds in asparagus. Our herbicides are not labeled for use in this vegetable crop. After she is done harvesting the asparagus for the year, she can cut it back so all green growth is below ground and glyphosate (Roundup) can be used over the bed. This could be used in the fall after the season, followed by mulching the plants in to reduce new growth.

8. This caller has a disease on his pine trees. Is it too late to spray the trees to prevent the disease?

A. This is likely either needle blight or tip blight. The timing for spraying for needle blight is in mid May as the needles are emerging, with a second application in mid to late June, so it would be the correct time to spray for this disease. If the disease is the tip blight, the timing for spraying for that is in the third week of April, just before the needles emerge with a second application 7-14 days later. You would be past the prime window for this disease, but it would still be beneficial this early to treat for this disease as well to avoid too much spread of the disease. With the spring as cool as it has been this year, most things are pushed back a bit and fungicides would still be beneficial for these trees.

9. A caller asked why tordon could not be used for the weedy trees in the peonies that caller #6 asked about?

A. Tordon will kill the peonies as well. Tordon is a mobile chemical that can get from the roots of these trees and into the roots of the peonies, killing them as well. Also, Tordon is not labeled for use in a landscape setting, it is only labeled for roadsides and ditches.

10. This caller has 2 viburnums that are growing in her yard. One has leafed out fine but the other leafed out only part of the way and has now stopped emerging from winter dormancy. Will it be ok?

A. Don’t give up on the plants too soon this year. The spring has been quite cold and unusual for our plants. The general recommendation is to wait until June 1st before determining death in the plants. Because it started growing, it is likely that it will be fine. Make sure that the plant is getting plenty of water to help it pull through. If the plant begins to sucker from the base, this could be a sign that the top had cold damage.

11. A caller has 2 ornamental grasses that haven’t greened up yet. Will they survive or are they dead?

A. Just like with the viburnums, give the plants time to come out of their winter dormancy. Many of the ornamental grasses have not begun to green up this year yet. Wait until June 1st before deciding to destroy the plants that may just be slow to come out of dormancy this year.

12. This caller’s lawn is brown and pulls up with no roots attached. Could it be grubs?

A. If there are no roots attached to the grass, it is most likely due to grubs. Grubs can be managed with a grub control product applied to the grass in mid-June. For the grass that died, you can overseed the area in late August to early September.

13. A caller has a patch of rhubarb that is not growing much and is going to seed early. What can be done about that?

A. Rhubarb will start sending out seed-stalks in warmer weather. Some varieties, though, are more prone to send out seedheads early in the season. Cut off the seedheads as you see them start to form to push energy back into the roots and leaf production rather than into seed production for the plants.

This caller also wanted to know if you can root lilacs from a cut branch?

Lilacs are difficult to get to root. The best chances to get it to grow would be to take a piece from the base of the plants that has roots attached to it already. Divide the plant by taking a section off the side of the plant would be best.

14. What would be a good choice for an organic weed killer for dandelions?

A. If the population is manageable, hand removal would be the best organic choice. There are other products such as corn gluten meal and dried distillers grains which are used for pre-emergence weed control. According to the University of Minnesota, ‘It should be noted that any claimed herbicidal effects of Dried Distillers Grains have not been proven or verified as they have been for corn gluten meal’. For post-emergent organic weed control, vinegar can be used, but it is non-selective so it needs to be used as a spot spray. It is important to remember, that bees love dandelions and a small population can be tolerated and helpful for our pollinators.

15. The final caller of the day wants to know about mulching her garden. She uses straw but wheat comes with the straw mulch. What can she do?

A. Straw mulch can bring weed seeds with it, but it does make a great mulch for a vegetable garden. It would be best to shake the straw out over a tarp before applying it to the garden to pull most seeds out of it. Also, using older straw would help so that the seeds would have all germinated before use. Grass clippings make another great garden mulch. Just make sure that the grass was not treated with a pesticide before applying it to the garden. The pesticide label will tell you if or when those grass clippings can be used on a garden again this year. Grass clippings do break down quickly, so it is best to reapply this mulch often or the weeds will poke through.

Crabgrass

crabgrass, Joseph Berger, Bugwood

Crabgrass photo, courtesy of Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org

This time of the year is always full of activities to do outside. It is a great time to get outside in the comfortable weather. Lawncare is always at the top of our spring outdoor ‘to do’ list, and crabgrass is number one on the concerns.

Crabgrass Basics

Crabgrass is a summer annual grassy weed that takes advantage of thin areas in our lawns to become established. As a summer annual weed, crabgrass germinates in the spring and, if not controlled, new plants continue to germinate throughout the summer. Each plant grows for one summer, then dies with the first hard frost in the fall. New crabgrass that you see in your lawn each year is from seed that was set the previous year by the crabgrass growing before.

Crabgrass is a problem in our lawns. Each plant will compete with our desirable grass species. Once crabgrass gets into a lawn, it will compete with our grass for water, sunlight and growing space. Plants produce a large amount of seed that will germinate the following year, creating an ongoing problem on your lawn.

Prevention

Crabgrass is difficult to eradicate once it becomes established, so it is better to prevent this weed from becoming established in the first place. Crabgrass preemergent herbicides are used to inhibit the growth of young seedlings, destroying them before they can emerge from the soil. Which is why many people prefer to use a preemergent herbicide to control the crabgrass in their lawn.

Preemergent herbicides should be applied before crabgrass has started to germinate, which happens when soil temperature has reached 55-60 degrees F, measured at 4-inch soil depth, for at least four days. This is not based on a date range, because soil temperatures differ from year to year. It is based on the weather conditions for that year. We have reached that point now this year.

It is not beneficial to apply the preemergent too early in the year. Once applied products begin to degrade and breakdown. If your application is made too early, before crabgrass germination has started, you are wasting your product and monty because you will have a shortened period of control once crabgrass does start germination.

Plan on making two applications of preemergent to give season-long crabgrass control. Purchase enough product in spring for two applications; garden centers often run out of preemergent products by the end of spring so it could be hard to find later in summer. Each product has a slightly different length of residual action, so follow the product’s label directions on when the second application should be made.

Controlling Existing Plants

Post-emergent herbicides can be used to control crabgrass that has emerged in your lawn. Products containing Mesotrione, commonly found in the product called Tenacity, works as both a pre- and post- emergent herbicide on grasses and broadleaf weeds. It can also be used at seeding if you have a history of crabgrass problems and need to overseed.

The other commonly used post-emergent herbicide for controlling crabgrass would be products that contain Quinclorac, commonly found in the product called Drive.

If crabgrass does appear in your lawn, you can reduce future problems by keeping plants mowed short enough that they don’t produce seedheads. Then at least there won’t be additional seed in the soil to increase your problem next year.

Yard and Garden: April 27, 2018

Y&G Blog Photo, 2018

This is the Q&A for the Yard and Garden show for April 27, 2018. Yard and Garden Live is a call-in radio show I do on KUTT 99.5 FM from 10-11:30 am and it will run through August 3, 2018. It can also be found on kutt995.com for online listening. If you missed a show or just want to read through the questions, I have written them all in my blog and will continue to do so throughout the season.

Guest Host: Dick Campbell, Owner of Campbell’s Nursery in Lincoln

1.The first caller of the show wants to plant hydrangea’s on the south side of a porch. Will they grow well in that location?

A. Most hydrangeas like part shade and wouldn’t grow as well in a location of south sun. However, ‘Limelight’ and ‘Little Lime’ would be good selections for full sun. The ‘Little Lime’ hydrangea will only grow up to 3 feet tall while ‘Limelight’ will grow up to 6-8 feet tall.

2. A walk-in listener has a 12 year old boxwood that is turning whitish-brown throughout most of the plant. What, if anything, can be done to save the plant?

A. This could be boxwood blight or winter desiccation. The fact that the boxwoods started to turn brown in the summer makes it less likely that it is winter desiccation. Also, the plant is brown and dead throughout the majority of the center of the plant, where winter desiccation typically only shows up on the top and outer sides where wind directly hits the plant. Either way, too much of the shrub has become dead branches so it should be removed. Boxwoods can be replanted into the area where the blight was a problem previously with no harm to the new plants.

3. A caller has Dwarf Alberta Spruce trees that have brown spots on them. Last summer he sprayed the plants with a copper fungicide, but should something else be done to them?

A. Dwarf Alberta spruce is prone to problems with spider mites in the summer months. If it is spider mites, when they start becoming active again, they can be killed with a strong spray of water. The bigger problem is that this is a very slow growing tree and it may never fill in again where the dead areas have appeared in the trees.

4. This caller has pecan trees that the top has died back on them over the winter. Can he prune it out and maintain the trees?

A. Give the trees time to leaf out this summer to know for sure where the dieback is found through the tree. With the cooler spring this year, many of our plants are slow to come out of their dormancy. Wait until the tree is fully out of dormancy before pruning it. After it has leafed out fully, cut the dead areas out, but cut back to a bud at the top of the tree so that you can use that bud to reestablish a new leader.

5. A caller has underground irrigation and planted a new lawn via seed and some via sod last fall. What type of watering schedule should he be on now?

A. Because this lawn was established last fall, you would not need to keep up the same schedule as last fall, the roots should be established now. Wait to start up the irrigation after spring rains begin. 1 inch of water per week would be the recommendation now, that is what established lawns require, so it would be the same for this lawn. Most often, we give our lawns 1 inch of water per week through 3 irrigation cycles of 1/3 inch each time. Make sure you check your irrigation rates when you first turn your system on for the year.

6. This caller has a 25-30 foot tall red oak in his yard. Every year for the past 2-3 years, the leaves come out cupped and small and stay that way through the entire growing season. What is wrong with his tree? He has other oaks in his yard that don’t look like this.

A. The cupping leaves sounds similar to herbicide drift. Typically, though, the trees will grow more leaves later in the season that are not cupped. If this was herbicide damage, it is likely that all the oaks in the yard would have this problem, but it still could be herbicide damage. It could also be from a small mite or other insect that is sucking the juices out of the leaves as they emerge. It would be best to bring a sample to the show or to Nicole to take to the lab for further testing. If it is herbicide damage, multiple years with damage to a tree can start to stress and kill a tree.

2018-04-20 12.52.00

Henbit blooming

7. A caller has a zoysiagrass lawn that is full of henbit for the first time this year. Is there anything to do for that now?

A. Henbit is blooming for the year now, which means it is already setting seed for more henbit to grow there next year. Henbit is a winter annual that germinates in the fall, goes dormant over the winter, then comes up in the spring and flowers and produces seed before it dies with the summer warmth. Because it is getting so late in the year and the seed is already there, there is no reason to treat for henbit now. It will die soon, once the temperatures warm up. next fall, treat with a 2,4-D product in October or November to kill it as it first germinates in the fall.

8. How do you control Creeping Charlie in the lawn?

A. Creeping Charlie is best controlled in the fall months with a 2,4-D product or a product containing Triclopyr. It is best to do 2 applications in the fall, one in the middle of September and another at the end of October. The caller was going to overseed, so it was advised to overseed this spring and then treat the Creeping Charlie in the fall for best control. It will take multiple years of treatments to fully reduce or eradicate Creeping Charlie, but spraying in the fall will start knocking it back.

9. This caller has Sod that was installed last November and now some cracks have shown up between the sections of the turf. What can be done to fix that?

A. Add some soil to those areas of bare ground and then reseed those areas. Cover the new seed with peat moss while it establishes to keep it moist.

10. A caller wants to know how to plant strawberries and what varieties are good choices?

A. Sarah Browning, Lancaster County Extension, has written a good article on Planting a Strawberry Bed

11. The last caller of the day wanted to know if they should till their garden before planting and when to prune her hydrangea shrub?

A. If the soil is loose and has a good level of nutrients, you wouldn’t have to till it first. It might be a good idea to till it first to loosen it up and to add nutrients back into the soil for better production.

As for the hydrangea, this is a late summer blooming hydrangea, so it can be pruned now and still produce flower blooms for August or September this year. It can be pruned back to the ground if it is overgrown. If it is not too overgrown, the largest canes can just be cut out of the plant, leaving the more productive, smaller canes in the plant to grow.